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Textile Technique
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      Textile Technique
Textile technique
(fǎng zhī jì shù 纺织技术) has a long history in China. As early as in the primitive society,  people in ancient China have taken advantage of the natural resource to make simple textile facilities for weaving so as to adapt to the changeable weather.

Textile TechniqueThe textile machine in China originates from the spindle wheel in the Neolithic Age (xīn shí qì shí dài 新石器时代). In the Western Zhou (xī hàn 西汉) Dynasty there came into being the spinning wheel (fǎng chē 纺车) which is with the traditional capability. In the Han Dynasty (hàn cháo 汉朝), the jacquard machines were widely used. After Tang Dynasty (tang cháo 唐朝), the textile machines were improved, and greatly promoted the development of textile industry.

The development of textile technology is depended on textile material. Therefore, the material of textile is of great importance in the textile technology. In late years of the Song Dynasty and the early years of the Yuan Dynasty (yuán cháo 元朝), Huang Daopo (huáng dào pó 黄道婆) had learnt from the Li people (lí zú rén 黎族人) a series of techniques of planting as well as cotton spinning and weaving. She also popularized and improved many textile machines so that the efficiency of labor was greatly increased. She improved on the cotton fluffer and Textile Techniquesuccessively invented a tool for cotton-spinning, a pedal spinning wheel with three spindles (sān ding jiǎo tà fǎng mián chē 三锭脚踏纺棉车), which was the most advanced one at that time.

In ancient China, besides wool, cotton and flax, people also used silk for textile. Silk is the best textile fibers which can be weaved into various complicated tracery. The widely use of the silk has also greatly promoted the textile techniques and textile machines. Thereby, the silk production technique has become the most representative in ancient China.

纺织技术
      中国的纺织技术有非常悠久的历史。早在原始社会时期,古人为了适应气候的变化,已懂得就地取材,利用自然资源作为纺织的原料,并懂得制造简单的纺织工具。直至今天,我们日常的衣着、某些生活用品和艺术品都是纺织和印染技术的产物。

      中国机具纺织起源于五千年前新石器时期的纺轮和腰机。西周时期具有传统性能的简单机械缫车、纺车、织机相继出现,汉代广泛使用提花机、斜织机,唐以后中国纺织机械日趋完善,大大促进了纺织业的发展。

Textile Technique      古今纺织工艺流程和设备的发展都是因应纺织原料而设计的,因此,原料在纺织技术中具有重要的地位。宋末元初,黄道婆从黎族人那里学到了一整套种植和纺织棉花技术。同时她还推广和改进了很多纺织机械, 大大提高了劳动效率。她改进了弹棉花的弹弓,并成功地制成了当时世界上最先进的纺纱工具——三锭脚踏纺棉车。

      古代中国除了使用棉、麻、毛三种纤维外,还大量利用长纤维——蚕丝。蚕丝在所有天然纤维中是最优良、最长、最纤细的纺织纤维,可以织制各种复杂的花纹提花织物。丝纤维的广泛利用,大大地促进了中国古代纺织工艺和纺织机械的进步,从而使丝织生产技术成为中国古代最具特色和代表性的纺织技术。

 

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