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Han Fu
Learn Chinese - History and Culture

altHan Chinese clothing, or Hanfu (hàn fú 汉服,literally "Clothing of the Han people") refers to the traditional clothing of the Han Chinese, the predominant ethnic group of China.

According to legend, the first ruler of the Chinese nation and the ancestor of the Chinese people is an immemorial sage king called Huang-Di (huáng dì 黄帝 the Yellow Emperor). According to traditional reckoning, he unified the North China Plain in 2697 BC. Legends say that under his rule, China was a prosperous and powerful nation with stable politics and advanced culture. Many cultural and technological inventions are attributed to his reign, such as the Chinese written language, methods of agriculture, music, the Chinese calendar and so on. The Yellow Emperor's imperial consort, Luo-Zu, was said to be the first person to know how to raise silkworms and make silk from the silkworm cocoon, from which Hanfu was woven. Thus the Chinese Hanfu was invented.
 

Hanfu was regarded by Han Chinese as a very important part of their culture. The wearing of appropriate styles of Hanfu was an important part of courteous refined behaviour. Confucius considered Hanfu a very important part of Chinese ceremony and ritual and many of his quotations contain references to Hanfu.
As its name suggests, Hanfu encompasses all types of traditional clothing worn by the Han Chinese ethnic group. As such, it has a history as long as the history of the Han Chinese people. Hanfu was eliminated by Manchu invaders by force in the 17th century, and is not widely regarded in China as a national costume (unlike Qipao) and public awareness survives to a limited extent through periodic dramas and films.
Many traditional costumes of Asian countries, such as the kimono in Japan, the royal and traditional dress of Vietnam, Korean traditional dress hanbok are heavily influenced by Hanfu due to the extensive cultural exchanges between the neighbouring countries. In contrast to China, Traditional Japanese and Korean dress have not been affected by similar changes like in China and have been preserved over the centuries, and have retained many core elements of the original Hanfu.
After the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Manchu-style dress and the pigtail prevailed but was eventually replaced with modern dress (western style clothing). Today most Han Chinese wear western-style clothing, and Han Chinese clothing is largely unknown.As part of wider revivalist movement in traditional Chinese culture, Hanfu is receiving attention from Hanfu advocates who are campaigning to have it accepted as national costume.

汉服
alt汉服,即中国汉族的传统民族服饰,主要是指约公元前21世纪在至公元17世纪中叶(明末清初)近4000年中,以华夏(汉后又称汉民族)民族文化为基础,通过自然演化而形成的具有独特华夏民族文化风貌性格,区别于其它民族的传统服装的装饰体系;或者说:“汉民族传统服饰(汉服)”是从夏商周时期到明朝,华夏(汉)民族所著的、具有浓郁华夏(汉)民族风格的一系列华夏(汉)民族服饰的总体集合。

1.汉服的历史和发展
汉服是世界上历史最悠久的民族服饰之一。《史记》载,华夏衣裳为黄帝所制。“黄帝之前,未有衣裳屋宇。及黄帝造屋宇,制衣服,营殡葬,万民故免存亡之难。”(《史记》卷一 五帝本纪 第一)约五千年前,中国在新石器时代的仰韶文化时期,就产生了原始的农业和纺织业,开始用织成的麻布来做衣服,后又发明了饲蚕和丝纺,人们的衣冠服饰日臻完备。黄帝时代冕冠出现,服饰制度逐渐形成。夏商以后,冠服制度初步建立,西周时,逐渐完备。周代后期,由于政治、经济、思想文化都发生了急剧的变化,特别是百家学说对服饰的完善有着一定的影响,诸侯国间的衣冠服饰及风俗习惯上都开始有着明显的不同。并创造深衣。冠服制被纳入了“礼治”的范围,成了礼仪的表现形式,从此中国的衣冠服制更加详备。

汉族的这一服饰制度自周代至明代,三千年来汉人服装的基本特征是没有大的该变。一直三百多年的清初,这一服饰制度才崩溃。1644年明朝灭亡后,清在与南明的战争中,清朝统治者为了达到削弱汉人的民族认同感,以便于维护满洲贵族统治的目的,而大力推行满族发型和满族服装,并以残酷的手段禁止人民穿戴汉族服饰,史称“剃发易服”(“剃发”也作“薙发”)。这使得汉服逐渐消亡。当时孔子的后裔衍圣公孔闻謤上书多尔衮,请求保存孔府家服饰,说:“先圣为典礼之宗……定礼之大要莫于冠服……惟臣家衣冠,三千年来未曾变易……”,遭到多尔衮拒绝。 今天的旗袍、长衫、马褂都是以满族为主体的民族服饰的改良和发展,而非汉族传统的民族服饰。
辛亥革命推翻满洲贵族的统治之后,人们的思想趋于西化,改穿西式服装,没有恢复汉服。但在21世纪初,随着中国国力的发展,人们开始审视自己传统文化中的优秀部分。一些人又重新倡导恢复传统汉服并身着汉服进行推广。对于这些人的行为,社会上有各种不同的看法,详见下面的争议部分。

2.汉服的特点和样式
汉服的主要特点是交领、右衽,不用扣子,而用绳带系结,给人洒脱飘逸的印象。这些特点都明显有别于其它民族的服饰。汉服有礼服和常服之分。从形制上看,主要有“上衣下裳”制(裳在古代指下裙)、“深衣”制(把上衣下裳缝连起来)、“襦裙”制(襦,即短衣)等类型。其中,上衣下裳的冕服为帝王百官最隆重正式的礼服;袍服(深衣)为百官及士人常服,襦裙则为妇女喜爱的穿著。普通劳动人民一般上身着短衣,下穿长裤。

配饰:
头饰是汉族服饰的重要部分之一。古代汉族男女成年之后都把头发绾成发髻盘在头上,以笄固定。男子常常戴冠、巾、帽等,形制多样。女子发髻也可梳成各种式样,并在发髻上佩带珠花、步摇等各种饰物。鬓发两侧饰博鬓,也有戴帷帽、盖头的。、

3.汉服对中国周边其它民族服饰的影响

和服
在日本的奈良时代,也即中国的盛唐时期,日本派出大量遣唐使到中国学习中国的文化艺术、律令制度,这其中也包括衣冠制度。当时他们还模仿唐制颁布了“衣服令”。至今日本仍把和服称为“吴服”(和服这个词是西方人对日本吴服的称谓,日本人逐渐接受了这个词,但是在日本卖和服的商店,一般称为吴服,少有和服的称谓),意为从中国的吴地(今江浙一带)传来的衣服。初期和服为唐服翻版,之后的盛装十二单的外套华服也被称为“唐衣”(李氏朝鲜礼服外套也称为唐衣,虽然两者已经有了更多的民族特色)。和服虽由汉服发展而来,但经过漫长的历史时期,已经发展岀自己的民族特色。如男服的裤子,江户时期之后女服腰带逐渐增宽到比较大的尺度,腰带鼓节移到后背并发展出种种样式,也是区别和服与汉服的主要标志。和服衣料上的纹饰等往往也具有鲜明的日本民族特色。

越服
越南古称交趾,公元968年,丁部领建立丁朝,开始成为独立的封建王朝,自称“大瞿越国”。在服饰上,尤其是宫廷礼服,国王、大臣的朝服,几乎就是中国汉族王朝宫廷礼服,皇帝、大臣朝服的翻版,试以越南末代国王保大所着之弁冠、兖服来看,与明朝宗藩服饰如出一辙,不过比之明朝皇帝,其造型显得小一号而已,以汉族帝王的正式礼服——冕旒兖服为例,明代皇帝的冕旒是十二旒的,越南是六旒的。满清占据中国之后的两百多年间,与中国南疆山水相连的安南(越南),仍然完好的保存着明式衣冠,从十九世纪末二十世纪初法国殖民者在越南存留下来的许多珍贵照片和大量的历史数据可以明确的反映出这一点,(附图)有一个典型的例子就是,1898年驻云南府(今昆明)的法国领事方苏雅(Auguste Francois 1857.8.20~1935.7.4)所著龙袍的照片,(附图)被许多人误认为是古代皇帝的龙袍或者中国戏曲中的装束,实际上,方苏雅所著之服,乃是安南国王的朝服,从造型看,和明代宗藩、大臣的朝服一般无二。

韩服
唐代时,新罗与唐朝交往甚密,服饰特点几乎与唐朝无异,李氏朝鲜中期之后韩服特别是女服朝高腰襦裙发展,同汉服区别逐渐增大,但官服,朝服,宫廷重要礼服仍一直保留较多汉服制度,并随汉服变化而变化,如唐朝时官员的乌纱幞头的后系带为下垂带样式,新罗官员幞头同为此样式,而明代之后改为展角样式,李朝也改为短展角;如李朝王后大礼服一直都为中国皇后翟衣样式。而现代韩服和汉服的主要不同之处:汉服一般是交领右衽,也有对襟的(V字领),而朝鲜服装的交领发展为小v领;女服裙子束的特别高,而且下摆十分宽大、蓬松。
 

 

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