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Chinese Wushu
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Wushu (wǔ shù 武术), or Martial Art, is an important component of the cultural heritage of China, with a rich content over the centuries. Literally, "Wu" means military, and "Shu" means art. Wushu therefore means the art of fighting, or martial arts. Martial training includes Ti (kicking), Da (punching), Shuai (throwing), Na (controlling), Ji (hitting), Ci (thrusting), etc. Related to each

style are basic forms, or sequences, which may involve defense strategies, offense, retreat, mobility and immobility, speed and slowness, hard or soft postures, emptiness and fullness, with or without weapons.

Wushu was born and has steadily grown and attained perfection as an integral part of Chinese culture. As such it is bound to be influenced and conditioned by other forms of culture, first and foremost by philosophy, art and literature, and religion. Wushu reigns as one of the most traditional and popular national sport in China, practiced by the young and old alike.

Wushu was originally a military training method, bearing a close relationship with ancient combats. Practical skills, such as strength training, fencing, staff sparring, spear training, etc., are still used now by policemen and soldiers. Today Wushu has been organized and systematized into a formal branch of study in the performance arts and has become an athletic and aesthetic performance and competitive sport. Every movement must exhibit sensible combat application and aestheticism.

Chinese Wushu is classified into various styles according to different regions, different schools and families, as well as different fighting techniques. Routines are performed solo, paired or in groups, either barehanded or armed with traditional Chinese weaponry. Wushu can be viewed in terms of two categories, including Taolu (Forms with or without weapons) and Sanshou (Free Sparring).

Taolu (táo lù 套路) is a performance of set offensive and defensive Wushu movements based on Chinese Wushu principles. It includes the following four main categories: Bare-Handed Forms, Weapon Forms, Duilian, and Group Forms.

Duilian form consists of sets of offensive and defensive movements for two or more practitioners in mock combat routines. They usually include three groups -- Bare-handed vs. Bare-handed, Weapon(s) vs. Weapon(s), and Bare-handed vs. Weapon(s). Group Forms are usually for demonstrations only and performed with or without weapons by a group of six or more persons.

Wushu's emphasis has shifted from combat to performance, and it is practiced for its method of achieving health, self-defense skills, mental discipline, recreational pursuit and competition. In 1990, Wushu was adopted as an official medal event in the Asian Games, and since then World Championships have been held with 56 nations participating. Now Wushu is vying for the Olympic Games in the 21st century.

中国武术
中国武术又称“国术”或“武艺”,是中国传统体育项目。其内容是把踢、打、摔、拿、跌、击、劈、刺等动作按照一定规律组成徒手的和器械的各种攻防格斗功夫、套路和单势练习。中国武术不仅是一种中国传统的体育运动形式,而且是一个完整的文化意识形态,它涵容了中国古典哲学、伦理学、美学,医学、兵学等中国传统文化的各种成分和要素,渗透着中国传统文化的精髓。武术具有极其广泛的群众基础,是中国人民在长期的社会实践中不断积累和丰富起来的一项宝贵的文化遗产。
武术最初作为军事训练手段,与古代军事斗争紧密相连,其技击的特性是显而易见的。在实用中,其目的在于杀伤、制服对方,它常常以最有效的技击方法,迫使对方失去反抗能力。这些技击术至今仍在军队、公安中被采用。武术作为体育运动,技术上仍不失攻防技击的特性、而是将技击寓于搏斗运动与套路运动之中。搏斗运动集中体现了武术攻防格斗的特点,在技术上与实用技击基本上是一致的,但是从体育的观念出发,它受到竞赛规则的制约,以不伤害对方为原则。如在散手中对武术中有些传统的实用技击方法作了限制,而且严格规定了击打部位和保护护具,短兵中使用的器具也作了相应的变化,而推手则是在特殊的技术规定下进行竞技对抗的。因此,可以说武术的搏斗运动具有很强的攻防技击性,但又与实用技击有所区别。

中国武术分类有以地区划分的,有以山脉、河流划分的,有以姓氏或内外家划分的,也有按技术特点划分的。按其运动形式可分为:套路运动和搏斗运动两大类。套路运动,是以技击动作为素材,以攻守进退、动静疾徐、刚柔虚实等运动的变化规律编成的整套练习形式。套路运动按练习形式又可分为单练、对练和集体演练三种类型。单练包括徒手的拳术与器械。对练包括徒手的对练、器械对练、徒手与器械对练。集体演练分徒手的拳术、器械或徒手与器械。
 

 

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