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Home History and Culture Ancient Capitals of China (Beijing)
Ancient Capitals of China (Beijing)
Learn Chinese - History and Culture

      
Beijing (běi jīng 北京) is a world renowned city of history and culture. The Liao Dynasty (liáo dài 辽代) made Beijing its alternate capital since 938AD. Later, Beijing become the capital city of Jin Dyansty (jīn dài 金代), called Zhongdu (zhōng dū 中都), capital of the Yuan Dyansty (yuán cháo 元朝), known as Dadu (dà dū 大都), and capital of the Ming (míng cháo 明朝) and Qing Dyansty (qīng cháo 清朝). During early Republican period in 1910s it became the capital of Republic of China. In 1928, the capital was moved to Nanjing (nán jīng 南京) and Beijing renamed Beiping (běi píng 北平), a name that held until 1949. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Beijing was once again renamed Beijing, and designated the country’s capital.

In the 50-odd years after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the capital has developed quickly and taken on a new look. Modern buildings rise up one by one like bamboo shoots in the spring after rain. With the successful bid for the summer Olympic Games in 2008 the concept of “Green Olympics, Technology Olympics and Cultural Olympics” will definitely bring large changes to Beijing, and strengthen the friendly communication between China and the other world.

Beijing possesses a strong force in science and technology. The Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Peking University and Tsinghua University are among the world famous scientific research organizations and institutions of higher education. At the same time, Beijing is making efforts to develop its hi-tech industries. The Zhongguancun area, now called China’s Silicon Valley, has gathered a galaxy of talents.

The Great Wall

The Great Wall (cháng chéng 长城) is known for its incomparable grandeur and long history. It is regarded as one of the world wonders. In 1987, it was inscribed on the world cultural heritage list by UNESCO.

The Palace Museum in Beijing
    
The Palace Museum (gù gōng bó wù guǎn 故宫博物馆), also called the Forbidden City (zǐ jìn chéng 紫禁城), was the royal palace of the Ming and Qing dynasty. In 1987 it was inscribed on the world cultural heritage list by UNESCON.

The Palace Museum is the world’s largest royal palace complex, with more than 9000 rooms inside. It is the biggest national museum in China with the richest cultural and artistic treasures. It are kept myriads of historical culture relics and artistic treasures of every dynasty. Its unique architectural style is the epitome of Chinese classical architecture.

The Temple of Heaven
   
The Temple of Heaven (tiān tán 天坛), built in 1420, was an alter where emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties offered sacrifices to heaven and prayed for a good harvest. Enjoying high reputation in the world for its special architecture and delicate decorations, it is listed by UNESCO as a world cultural heritage site.


中国古都之北京

      北京是世界文化名城和古都之一。自938年以来,辽以北京为陪都。此后北京又先后成为金中都、元大都、明清国都。民国初为都城,1928年国民党政府迁都南京,始将北京改名为北平市。1949年中华人民共和国成立,恢复北京的名称,并正式定为首都。

      中华人民共和国成立50多年来,北京的建设日新月异,现代化建筑如雨后春笋般相继崛起。北京成功地获得了2008年奥运会的举办权。“绿色奥运、科技奥运、人文奥运”的宗旨,给北京带来的更大的变化,也进一步加强了中国和世界的友好交流。

      北京科技力量强大,有中国科学院、北京大学、清华大学等世界著名的科研机构和高等学府。同时,北京正大力发展高新技术产业,人才密集的中关村被称为中国的“硅谷”。

长城
      长城以它浩大的工程,雄伟的气魄和悠久的历史著称于世,被列为世界奇迹,1987年被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产名录。

故宫
      故宫又称紫禁城,是明、清两朝的皇宫,1987年被联合国科教文组织列为世界文化遗产名录。
故宫是世界上最大的皇家宫殿群,内有宫室9000多间。它是中国最大的国家博物馆,也是最丰富的文化和艺术宝库。宫内藏有大量的历史文物和历史艺术珍品。它独特的建筑风格是中国古代建筑的精华。

天坛
      天坛建成于1420年,是明、清两代皇帝每年祭天和祈祷五谷丰收的地方。天坛建筑结构奇特,装饰精美,在世界上享有很高的声誉。

 

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