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Home Travel in Shandong Shandong Travel Guide
Shandong Travel Guide
Travel in Shandong

shandong

Shandong (Shāndōng 山东) is a coastal province of eastern People's Republic of China. Its abbreviation is Lu (lǔ 鲁), after the state of Lu (lǔ guó 鲁国) that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period (chūn qiū shí qī 春秋时期).

The name Shandong literally means "mountain's east", which refers to the province's location east of the Taihang Mountains (tài háng shān 太行山). The province is located in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and extends out to sea in the form of the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea (bó hǎi 渤海) to the north, Hebei (hé běi 河北) to the northwest, Henan (hé nán 河南) to the west, Jiangsu (jiāng sū 江苏) to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the southeast; it also shares a very short border with Anhui (ān huī 安徽), between Henan and Jiangsu.

A common nickname for Shandong is Qilu (qí lǔ 齐鲁), after the state of Lu and state of Qi that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period.


History

ConfuciusShandong is located on the eastern edge of the North China Plain (huá běi píng yuán 华北平原), and felt the influence of Chinese civilization since remote antiquity.During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (zhàn guó shí qī 战国时期), regional states became increasingly powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two powerful states: the state of Qi (qí guó 齐国) at Linzi (lín zī 临淄) and the state of Lu (lǔ guó 鲁国) at Qufu (qǔ曲阜). Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius. The state was, however, comparatively small, and eventually succumbed to the powerful state of Chu (chǔ guó 楚国) from the south. The state of Qi was, on the other hand, a major power throughout this entire period. Cities it ruled included Linzi, Jimo (jí mò 即墨) (north of modern Qingdao (qīng dǎo 青岛)) and Ju (jǔ).

The Qin Dynasty (qín cháo
秦朝) destroyed Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BC. The Han Dynasty (hàn cháo 汉朝) that followed created two zhou (zhōu) ("provinces") in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou Province (qīng zhōu 青州) in the north and Yanzhou Province (yǎn zhōu 兖州) in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms (sān guó 三国) Shandong belonged to the Kingdom of Wei (wèi guó 魏国), which ruled over northern China.

During the nineteenth century, China became increasingly exposed to Western influence, and Shandong, a coastal province, was especially affected. Qingdao (qīng d
ǎo 青岛) was leased to Germany in 1897 and Weihai (wēi hǎi 威海) to Britain in 1898. The rest of Shandong was generally considered to be part of the German sphere of influence. In addition, the Qing Dynasty opened Manchuria to Han Chinese (hàn ) immigration during the 19th century; Shandong was the main source of the ensuing tide of migrants.

May Fourth Movement As a consequence of the First World War, Germany lost Qingdao and its sphere of influence in Shandong. The Treaty of Versailles transferred the German concessions in Shandong to Japan instead of restoring Chinese sovereignty over the area. Popular dissatisfaction with this outcome of the Treaty of Versailles (Shandong Problem) led to the May Fourth Movement (w
ǔ sì yùn dòng 五四 运动). Finally, Shandong reverted to Chinese control in 1922 after mediation by the United States during the Washington Naval Conference. Weihai followed in 1930.

The second world warShandong was occupied in its entirety by Japan, with resistance continuing in the countryside, and was one of the provinces where a scorched earth policy ("Three Alls Policy" (sān guāng zhèng cè
三光政策): "kill all", "burn all", "loot all") was implemented by General Yasuji Okamura (gāng cūn níng cì 冈村宁次). This lasted until the surrender of Japan in 1945.

By 1945, communist forces already held some parts of Shandong. Over the next four years of the Chinese Civil War, they expanded their holdings, eventually driving the Kuomintang (guó mín d
ǎng 国民党) (government of the Republic of China) entirely out of Shandong by June 1949. The People's Republic of China was founded in October of the same year.

Climate
Shandong Province is frequently affected by marine monsoons, especially during the summer time. The climate is characterized by rain during the summer and autumn and a dry winter. The annual average temperature is between 11 and 14 degrees Centigrade while the annual precipitation is mostly affected by the monsoon rain. Between 500 millimeters and 1000 millimeters of rain can fall each year.

Tourism
shandong  mapShandong is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities are Jinan (jì nán 济南), Qingdao, Binzhou (bīn zhōu 滨州), Dezhou (dé zhōu 德州), Dongying (dōng yíng 东营), Heze (hé zé 菏泽), Jining (jì níng 济宁), Laiwu (lái wú 莱芜), Liaocheng (liáo chéng 聊城), Linyi (lín yí 临沂), Rizhao (rì zhào 日照), Tai’an (tài ān 泰安), Weifang (wéi fāng 潍坊), Weihai (wēi hǎi 威海), Yantai (yān tái 烟台), Zaozhuang (zǎo zhuāng 枣庄), Zibo (zī bó 淄博). All the cities have their own characters and attract many visitors home and aboard.
The major historical sites in the Shandong Province are the inscriptions on clay pots unearthed at Dawenkou (dà wèn kǒu 大汶口) and Dinggongcun (dīng gōng cūn 丁公村) which are believed to bear the earliest Chinese written language; the ruins of ancient Longshan City which is considered the earliest city in China; portions of the Great Wall built during the Qi State period which is believed to be the most ancient great wall in the country and the Confucius Temple, Confucius Mansion and Confucius Cemetery in Qufu.

Shandong is also blessed with beautiful landscapes. The most famous scenic spots are Mount Taishan (tài shān 泰山), Mt. Laoshan (láo shān 崂山) and the seaside of the Jiaodong (jiāo dōng 胶东) peninsula. In 1987 and 1994, Mount Taishan, the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Confucius Mansion in Qufu were inscribed on the China World Cultural and Natural Heritage List by UNESCO.
Jinan, Shandong's provincial capital is one of China's most famous historical and cultural cities. It has numerous natural springs, hence its name 'Spring City'.
Shandong Province is also considered the birthplace of China's pottery, porcelain and silk. Throughout the province the tourist can find traditional items like the clocks and watches of Yantai, the porcelain of Zibo, the kites of Weifang, the shell-carving and beer of Qingdao.

Mount Tai
Mount TaiMount Tai (Tài Shān 泰山) is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an (tài ān 泰安), in Shandong Province, China. The tallest peak is Jade Emperor Peak (Yùhuáng Dīng 玉皇顶), which is commonly reported as 1545 meters tall, but is described by the Chinese government as 1532.7 meters.Mount Tai is one of the "Five Sacred Mountains" (wǔ yuè 五岳). It is associated with sunrise, birth, and renewal, and is often regarded the foremost of the five. The temples on its slopes have been a destination for pilgrims for 3,000 years.

TQufuhe Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Confucius Mansion in Qufu
Within two years after the death of Confucius, his former house in Qufu was already consecrated as a temple by the Prince of Lu (lǔ 鲁).The Cemetery of Confucius lies to the north of the town of Qufu, the oldest graves found in this location date back to the Zhou Dynasty (zhōu cháo 周朝).The descendants of Confucius lived in the Kong family mansion located to the east of the temple. They were in charge of tending to the temple and cemetery. In particular, they were in charge of conducting elaborate religious ceremonies on occasions such as plantings, harvests, honoring the dead, and birthdays.

Mount Laoshan in Qingdao
Mount LaoshanThe Mount Laoshan scenic spot total area 446 square kilometers, in which long circles the mountain sea cliff line to amount to 87.3 kilometers, the prominent peak height 1,133 meters, may be called rises suddenly, stands. The Mount Laoshan climate is fresh and moist, the annual mean temperature is 12.6 degree Celsius, the winter average temperature is -0.2 degree Celsius, in summer the average temperature is 23 degree Celsius. The Mount Laoshan history is glorious, the historical site gathers together. Far in 140 million year ago cretaceous period early time, the Mount Laoshan namely has formed, 5000, 6000 years ago, the ancients have lived together in this live, have created the bright Longshan culture. << Historical Records of the Eastern Han dynasty Meets sprouts passes on >> (后汉书), << Nan Shi Ming Sengming passes on >> (南史) and so on to have the record.
Thousand-Buddha Mountain
Thousand-Buddha Mountain (qiān fó shān 千佛山) in Jinan
It is renowned for its numerous Buddha images which have been carved out of the hill's rock faces or free-standing structures erect since the times of the Sui (suí 隋) Dynasty (581-618, A.D.) and its Xingguochan (xìng guó chán 兴国禅) Temple.



Baotu Spring in Jinan

Baotu SpringThe Baotu Spring is the most renown among the more than 70 named artesian springs in the downtown area of the city of Jinan. The water of all these springs originates from an Ordovician karst aquifer under the city. As the terrain around Jinan slopes from the south down to the north, the recharge are for the aquifer is located in the mountainous area to the south of the city. The recharge area of the springs covers 1,500 square kilo-meters, out of which 550 km2 provide direct recharge and 950 km2 indirect recharge.

Penglai Pavilion in Penglai
PenglaiPenglai Pavilion or Penglai Pagoda (Pénglái Gé 蓬莱阁)is a famous tower in Penglai. It is noted as one of the Four Great Towers of China, although it is occasionally it is not listed due to its lack of a famous literary piece. It is known as the landing place of the Eight Immortals and famous for its occasional mirages. The dividing line between the Yellow Sea (huáng hǎi 黄海) and Bohai sea (bó hǎi 渤海) is also marked and clearly visible from the area.

Rongcheng Swan Lake in Weihai
Rongcheng Swan LakeIn Rongcheng Swan Lake tourism holiday resort, there is the world's largest swan’s habitat—Cheng Shanwei (chéng shān wèi 成山卫) Swan Lake which has clean water, gold beach and blue sky with delightful climate.
Every year, from November to April, thousands of swans, wild ducks and wild goose from Siberia and Inner Mongolia come to spend the winter. It is well named as the Eastern Kingdom of Swans. A sand dam of 100 m wide isolates the lake and sea, forming thousands of sea and sand bathing places.

Shandong Underground Grand Canyon in Linyi
Shandong Underground Grand Canyon in LinyiThe total length of the Grand Canyon is 6,100 meters, of which 3,100 meters has been exploited as a tourist line. The Grand Canyon was shaped by the enormous karst crack 200,000 years ago. The murmuring stream makes beautiful sound. The grotesque stalactites, stalagmites and stone waterfall portray a variety of styles. Over one hundred scenic spot such as One River, Five Passes, Six Waterfalls, Nine Spring, Nine Palaces, and Twelve Gorges etc are magnificent and remarkable, deep and serene. The Grand Canyon has the cliff with the height of several meters, the colorful vault of heaven, the bottomless crack of stone, the waterfalls just like the Milky Way pouring from the sky and the spiral shells with different styles.

Transportation
The Jingjiu Railway (jīng jiǔ tiě lù 京九铁路) and Jinghu Railway (jīng hù tiě lù 京沪铁路) are both major arterial railways that pass through the western part of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaocheng and Heze; the Jinghu passes through Dezhou, Jinan, Tai'an, Qufu. and Tengzhou. The Jiaoji Railway (jiāo jì tiě lù 胶济铁路) is an important railway of Shandong, linking its two largest cities of Qingdao and Jinan, with the longest history of all.

 

Shandong Transport mapShandong has one of the densest and highest quality expressway networks among all Chinese provinces. At over 3000 km, the total length of Shandong's expressways is the highest among the provinces. The Jiqing Expressway (jì qīng gāo sù 济青高速) and Jingfu Expressway (jīng fú gāo sù 京福高速) are all important arterial expressways.

The Shandong Peninsula, with its bays and harbours, has many important ports, including Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Rizhao, and Longkou. Many of these ports have historical significance as well, as the sites of former foreign naval bases or historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsula, further north across the sea.

Important airports include Jinan Yaoqiang (yáo qiáng 遥墙) Airport and Qingdao Liuting (liú tíng 流亭) International Airport.

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Last Updated on Thursday, 06 May 2010 15:30