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Home Living in China Chinese Law CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA中华人民共和国宪法
CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA中华人民共和国宪法
Chinese Law
序  言
      第一章  总  纲
      第二章  公民的基本权利和义务
      第三章  国家机构
          第一节  全国人民代表大会
          第二节  中华人民共和国主席
          第三节  国务院
          第四节  中央军事委员会
          第五节  地方各级人民代表大会和地方各
                  级人民政府
          第六节  民族自治地方的自治机关
          第七节  人民法院和人民检察院
      第四章  国旗、国徽、首都

  序 言

  中国是世界上历史最悠久的国家之一。中国各族人民共同创造了光辉灿烂的文化,具有光荣的革命传统。

  一八四0年以后,封建的中国逐渐变成半殖民地、半封建的国家。中国人民为国家独立、民族解放和民主自由进行了前仆后继的英勇奋斗。

  二十世纪,中国发生了翻天覆地的伟大历史变革。

  一九一一年孙中山先生领导的辛亥革命,废除了封建帝制,创立了中华民国。但是,中国人民反对帝国主义和封建主义的历史任务还没有完成。

  一九四九年,以毛泽东主席为领袖的中国共产党领导中国各族人民,在经历了长期的艰难曲折的武装斗争和其他形式的斗争以后,终于推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的统治,取得了新民主主义革命的伟大胜利,建立了中华人民共和国。从此,中国人民掌握了国家的权力,成为国家的主人。

  中华人民共和国成立以后,我国社会逐步实现了由新民主主义到社会主义的过渡。生产资料私有制的社会主义改造已经完成,人剥削人的制度已经消灭,社会主义制度已经确立。工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政,实质上即无产阶级专政,得到巩固和发展。中国人民和中国人民解放军战胜了帝国主义、霸权主义的侵略、破坏和武装挑衅,维护了国家的独立和安全,增强了国防。经济建设取得了重大的成就,独立的、比较完整的社会主义工业体系已经基本形成,农业生产显著提高。教育、科学、文化等事业有了很大的发展,社会主义思想教育取得了明显的成效。广大人民的生活有了较大的改善。

  中国新民主主义革命的胜利和社会主义事业的成就,都是中国共产党领导中国各族人民,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想的指引下,坚持真理,修正错误,战胜许多艰难险阻而取得的。今后国家的根本任务是集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设。中国各族人民将继续在中国共产党领导下,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想指引下,坚持人民民主专政,坚持社会主义道路,不断完善社会主义的各项制度,发展社会主义民主,健全社会主义法制,自力更生,艰苦奋斗,逐步实现工业、农业、国防和科学技术的现代化,把我国建设成为高度文明、高度民主的社会主义国家。

  在我国,剥削阶级作为阶级已经消灭,但是阶级斗争还将在一定范围内长期存在。中国人民对敌视和破坏我国社会主义制度的国内外的敌对势力和敌对分子,必须进行斗争。

  台湾是中华人民共和国的神圣领土的一部分。完成统一祖国的大业是包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的神圣职责。

  社会主义的建设事业必须依靠工人、农民和知识分子,团结一切可以团结的力量。在长期的革命和建设过程中,已经结成由中国共产党领导的,有各民主党派和各人民团体参加的,包括全体社会主义劳动者、拥护社会主义的爱国者和拥护祖国统一的爱国者的广泛的爱国统一战线,这个统一战线将继续巩固和发展。中国人民政治协商会议是有广泛代表性的统一战线组织,过去发挥了重要的历史作用,今后在国家政治生活、社会生活和对外友好活动中,在进行社会主义现代化建设、维护国家的统一和团结的斗争中,将进一步发挥它的重要作用。

  中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等、团结、互助的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。

  中国革命和建设的成就是同世界人民的支持分不开的。中国的前途是同世界的前途紧密地联系在一起的。中国坚持独立自主的对外政策,坚持互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处的五项原则,发展同各国的外交关系和经济、文化的交流;坚持反对帝国主义、霸权主义、殖民主义,加强同世界各国人民的团结,支持被压迫民族和发展中国家争取和维护民族独立、发展民族经济的正义斗争,为维护世界和平和促进人类进步事业而努力。

  本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。

  第一章 总 纲

  第一条 中华人民共和国是工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的社会主义国家。

  社会主义制度是中华人民共和国的根本制度。禁止任何组织或者个人破坏社会主义制度。

  第二条 中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。

  人民行使国家权力的机关是全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会。

  人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。

  第三条 中华人民共和国的国家机构实行民主集中制的原则。

  全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会都由民主选举产生,对人民负责,受人民监督。

  国家行政机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。

  中央和地方的国家机构职权的划分,遵循在中央的统一领导下,充分发挥地方的主动性、积极性的原则。

  第四条 中华人民共和国各民族一律平等。国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等、团结、互助关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。

  国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。

  各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。

  各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。

  第五条 国家维护社会主义法制的统一和尊严。

  一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触。

  一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究。

  任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。

  第六条 中华人民共和国的社会主义经济制度的基础是生产资料的社会主义公有制,即全民所有制和劳动群众集体所有制。

  社会主义公有制消灭人剥削人的制度,实行各尽所能,按劳分配的原则。

  第七条 国营经济是社会主义全民所有制经济,是国民经济中的主导力量。国家保障国营经济的巩固和发展。

  第八条 农村人民公社、农业生产合作社和其他生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜。

  城镇中的手工业、工业、建筑业、运输业、商业、服务业等行业的各种形式的合作经济,都是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。

  国家保护城乡集体经济组织的合法的权利和利益,鼓励、指导和帮助集体经济的发展。

  第九条 矿藏、水流、森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,都属于国家所有,即全民所有;由法律规定属于集体所有的森林和山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂除外。

  国家保障自然资源的合理利用,保护珍贵的动物和植物。禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏自然资源。

  第十条 城市的土地属于国家所有。

  农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有。

  国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对土地实行征用。

  任何组织或者个人不得侵占、买卖、出租或者以其他形式非法转让土地。

  一切使用土地的组织和个人必须合理地利用土地。

  第十一条 在法律规定范围内的城乡劳动者个体经济,是社会主义公有制经济的补充。国家保护个体经济的合法的权利和利益。

  国家通过行政管理,指导、帮助和监督个体经济。

  第十二条 社会主义的公共财产神圣不可侵犯。

  国家保护社会主义的公共财产。禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏国家的和集体的财产。

  第十三条 国家保护公民的合法的收入、储蓄、房屋和其他合法财产的所有权。

  国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产的继承权。

  第十四条 国家通过提高劳动者的积极性和技术水平,推广先进的科学技术,完善经济管理体制和企业经营管理制度,实行各种形式的社会主义责任制,改进劳动组织,以不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力。

  国家厉行节约,反对浪费。

  国家合理安排积累和消费,兼顾国家、集体和个人的利益,在发展生产的基础上,逐步改善人民的物质生活和文化生活。

  第十五条 国家在社会主义公有制基础上实行计划经济。国家通过经济计划的综合平衡和市场调节的辅助作用,保证国民经济按比例地协调发展。

  禁止任何组织或者个人扰乱社会经济秩序,破坏国家经济计划。

  第十六条 国营企业在服从国家的统一领导和全面完成国家计划的前提下,在法律规定的范围内,有经营管理的自主权。

  国营企业依照法律规定,通过职工代表大会和其他形式,实行民主管理。

  第十七条 集体经济组织在接受国家计划指导和遵守有关法律的前提下,有独立进行经济活动的自主权。

  集体经济组织依照法律规定实行民主管理,由它的全体劳动者选举和罢免管理人员,决定经营管理的重大问题。

  第十八条 中华人民共和国允许外国的企业和其他经济组织或者个人依照中华人民共和国法律的规定在中国投资,同中国的企业或者其他经济组织进行各种形式的经济合作。

  在中国境内的外国企业和其他外国经济组织以及中外合资经营的企业,都必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。它们的合法的权利和利益受中华人民共和国法律的保护。

  第十九条 国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。

  国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。

  国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。

  国家鼓励集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和其他社会力量依照法律规定举办各种教育事业。

  国家推广全国通用的普通话。

  第二十条 国家发展自然科学和社会科学事业,普及科学和技术知识,奖励科学研究成果和技术发明创造。

  第二十一条 国家发展医疗卫生事业,发展现代医药和我国传统医药,鼓励和支持农村集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和街道组织举办各种医疗卫生设施,开展群众性的卫生活动,保护人民健康。

  国家发展体育事业,开展群众性的体育活动,增强人民体质。

  第二十二条 国家发展为人民服务、为社会主义服务的文学艺术事业、新闻广播电视事业、出版发行事业、图书馆博物馆文化馆和其他文化事业,开展群众性的文化活动。

  国家保护名胜古迹、珍贵文物和其他重要历史文化遗产。

  第二十三条 国家培养为社会主义服务的各种专业人才,扩大知识分子的队伍,创造条件,充分发挥他们在社会主义现代化建设中的作用。

  第二十四条 国家通过普及理想教育、道德教育、文化教育、纪律和法制教育,通过在城乡不同范围的群众中制定和执行各种守则、公约,加强社会主义精神文明的建设。

  国家提倡爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱社会主义的公德,在人民中进行爱国主义、集体主义和国际主义、共产主义的教育,进行辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的教育,反对资本主义的、封建主义的和其他的腐朽思想。

  第二十五条 国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。

  第二十六条 国家保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害。

  国家组织和鼓励植树造林,保护林木。

  第二十七条 一切国家机关实行精简的原则,实行工作责任制,实行工作人员的培训和考核制度,不断提高工作质量和工作效率,反对官僚主义。

  一切国家机关和国家工作人员必须依靠人民的支持,经常保持同人民的密切联系,倾听人民的意见和建议,接受人民的监督,努力为人民服务。

  第二十八条 国家维护社会秩序,镇压叛国和其他反革命的活动,制裁危害社会治安、破坏社会主义经济和其他犯罪的活动,惩办和改造犯罪分子。

  第二十九条 中华人民共和国的武装力量属于人民。它的任务是巩固国防,抵抗侵略,保卫祖国,保卫人民的和平劳动,参加国家建设事业,努力为人民服务。

  国家加强武装力量的革命化、现代化、正规化的建设,增强国防力量。

  第三十条 中华人民共和国的行政区域划分如下:

  (一)全国分为省、自治区、直辖市;

  (二)省、自治区分为自治州、县、自治县、市;

  (三)县、自治县分为乡、民族乡、镇。

  直辖市和较大的市分为区、县。自治州分为县、自治县、市。

  自治区、自治州、自治县都是民族自治地方。

  第三十一条 国家在必要时得设立特别行政区。在特别行政区内实行的制度按照具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定。

  第三十二条 中华人民共和国保护在中国境内的外国人的合法权利和利益,在中国境内的外国人必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。

  中华人民共和国对于因为政治原因要求避难的外国人,可以给予受庇护的权利。

  第二章 公民的基本权利和义务

  第三十三条 凡具有中华人民共和国国籍的人都是中华人民共和国公民。

  中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。

  任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。

  第三十四条 中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。

  第三十五条 中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。

  第三十六条 中华人民共和国公民有宗教信仰自由。

  任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民。

  国家保护正常的宗教活动。任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动。

  宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配。

  第三十七条 中华人民共和国公民的人身自由不受侵犯。

  任何公民,非经人民检察院批准或者决定或者人民法院决定,并由公安机关执行,不受逮捕。

  禁止非法拘禁和以其他方法非法剥夺或者限制公民的人身自由,禁止非法搜查公民的身体。

  第三十八条 中华人民共和国公民的人格尊严不受侵犯。禁止用任何方法对公民进行侮辱、诽谤和诬告陷害。

  第三十九条 中华人民共和国公民的住宅不受侵犯。禁止非法搜查或者非法侵入公民的住宅。

  第四十条 中华人民共和国公民的通信自由和通信秘密受法律的保护。除因国家安全或者追查刑事犯罪的需要,由公安机关或者检察机关依照法律规定的程序对通信进行检查外,任何组织或者个人不得以任何理由侵犯公民的通信自由和通信秘密。

  第四十一条 中华人民共和国公民对于任何国家机关和国家工作人员,有提出批评和建议的权利;对于任何国家机关和国家工作人员的违法失职行为,有向有关国家机关提出申诉、控告或者检举的权利,但是不得捏造或者歪曲事实进行诬告陷害。

  对于公民的申诉、控告或者检举,有关国家机关必须查清事实,负责处理。任何人不得压制和打击报复。

  由于国家机关和国家工作人员侵犯公民权利而受到损失的人,有依照法律规定取得赔偿的权利。

  第四十二条 中华人民共和国公民有劳动的权利和义务。

  国家通过各种途径,创造劳动就业条件,加强劳动保护,改善劳动条件,并在发展生产的基础上,提高劳动报酬和福利待遇。

  劳动是一切有劳动能力的公民的光荣职责。国营企业和城乡集体经济组织的劳动者都应当以国家主人翁的态度对待自己的劳动。国家提倡社会主义劳动竞赛,奖励劳动模范和先进工作者。国家提倡公民从事义务劳动。

  国家对就业前的公民进行必要的劳动就业训练。

  第四十三条 中华人民共和国劳动者有休息的权利。

  国家发展劳动者休息和休养的设施,规定职工的工作时间和休假制度。

  第四十四条 国家依照法律规定实行企业事业组织的职工和国家机关工作人员的退休制度。退休人员的生活受到国家和社会的保障。

  第四十五条 中华人民共和国公民在年老、疾病或者丧失劳动能力的情况下,有从国家和社会获得物质帮助的权利。国家发展为公民享受这些权利所需要的社会保险、社会救济和医疗卫生事业。

  国家和社会保障残废军人的生活,抚恤烈士家属,优待军人家属。

  国家和社会帮助安排盲、聋、哑和其他有残疾的公民的劳动、生活和教育。

  第四十六条 中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。

  国家培养青年、少年、儿童在品德、智力、体质等方面全面发展。

  第四十七条 中华人民共和国公民有进行科学研究、文学艺术创作和其他文化活动的自由。国家对于从事教育、科学、技术、文学、艺术和其他文化事业的公民的有益于人民的创造性工作,给以鼓励和帮助。

  第四十八条 中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。

  国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。

  第四十九条 婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。

  夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。

  父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。

  禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。

  第五十条 中华人民共和国保护华侨的正当的权利和利益,保护归侨和侨眷的合法的权利和利益。

  第五十一条 中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。

  第五十二条 中华人民共和国公民有维护国家统一和全国各民族团结的义务。

  第五十三条 中华人民共和国公民必须遵守宪法和法律,保守国家秘密,爱护公共财产,遵守劳动纪律,遵守公共秩序,尊重社会公德。

  第五十四条 中华人民共和国公民有维护祖国的安全、荣誉和利益的义务,不得有危害祖国的安全、荣誉和利益的行为。

  第五十五条 保卫祖国、抵抗侵略是中华人民共和国每一个公民的神圣职责。

  依照法律服兵役和参加民兵组织是中华人民共和国公民的光荣义务。

  第五十六条 中华人民共和国公民有依照法律纳税的义务。

  第三章 国家机构 第一节 全国人民代表大会

  第五十七条 中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关。它的常设机关是全国人民代表大会常务委员会。

  第五十八条 全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权。

  第五十九条 全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。

  全国人民代表大会代表的选举由全国人民代表大会常务委员会主持。

  全国人民代表大会代表名额和代表产生办法由法律规定。

  第六十条 全国人民代表大会每届任期五年。

  全国人民代表大会任期届满的两个月以前,全国人民代表大会常务委员会必须完成下届全国人民代表大会代表的选举。如果遇到不能进行选举的非常情况,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会以全体组成人员的三分之二以上的多数通过,可以推迟选举,延长本届全国人民代表大会的任期。在非常情况结束后一年内,必须完成下届全国人民代表大会代表的选举。

  第六十一条 全国人民代表大会会议每年举行一次,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会召集。如果全国人民代表大会常务委员会认为必要,或者有五分之一以上的全国人民代表大会代表提议,可以临时召集全国人民代表大会会议。

  全国人民代表大会举行会议的时候,选举主席团主持会议。

  第六十二条 全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

  (一)修改宪法;

  (二)监督宪法的实施;

  (三)制定和修改刑事、民事、国家机构的和其他的基本法律;

  (四)选举中华人民共和国主席、副主席;

  (五)根据中华人民共和国主席的提名,决定国务院总理的人选;根据国务院总理的提名,决定国务院副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选;

  (六)选举中央军事委员会主席;根据中央军事委员会主席的提名,决定中央军事委员会其他组成人员的人选;

  (七)选举最高人民法院院长;

  (八)选举最高人民检察院检察长;

  (九)审查和批准国民经济和社会发展计划和计划执行情况的报告;

  (十)审查和批准国家的预算和预算执行情况的报告;

  (十一)改变或者撤销全国人民代表大会常务委员会不适当的决定;

  (十二)批准省、自治区和直辖市的建置;

  (十三)决定特别行政区的设立及其制度;

  (十四)决定战争和和平的问题;

  (十五)应当由最高国家权力机关行使的其他职权。

  第六十三条 全国人民代表大会有权罢免下列人员:

  (一)中华人民共和国主席、副主席;

  (二)国务院总理、副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长;

  (三)中央军事委员会主席和中央军事委员会其他组成人员;

  (四)最高人民法院院长;

  (五)最高人民检察院检察长。

  第六十四条 宪法的修改,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会或者五分之一以上的全国人民代表大会代表提议,并由全国人民代表大会以全体代表的三分之二以上的多数通过。

  法律和其他议案由全国人民代表大会以全体代表的过半数通过。

  第六十五条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会由下列人员组成:

  委员长,

  副委员长若干人,

  秘书长,

  委员若干人。

  全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员中,应当有适当名额的少数民族代表。

  全国人民代表大会选举并有权罢免全国人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员。

  全国人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员不得担任国家行政机关、审判机关和检察机关的职务。

  第六十六条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同,它行使职权到下届全国人民代表大会选出新的常务委员会为止。

  委员长、副委员长连续任职不得超过两届。

  第六十七条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使下列职权:

  (一)解释宪法,监督宪法的实施;

  (二)制定和修改除应当由全国人民代表大会制定的法律以外的其他法律;

  (三)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,对全国人民代表大会制定的法律进行部分补充和修改,但是不得同该法律的基本原则相抵触;

  (四)解释法律;

  (五)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,审查和批准国民经济和社会发展计划、国家预算在执行过程中所必须作的部分调整方案;

  (六)监督国务院、中央军事委员会、最高人民法院和最高人民检察院的工作;

  (七)撤销国务院制定的同宪法、法律相抵触的行政法规、决定和命令;

  (八)撤销省、自治区、直辖市国家权力机关制定的同宪法、法律和行政法规相抵触的地方性法规和决议;

  (九)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,根据国务院总理的提名,决定部长、委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选;

  (十)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,根据中央军事委员会主席的提名,决定中央军事委员会其他组成人员的人选;

  (十一)根据最高人民法院院长的提请,任免最高人民法院副院长、审判员、审判委员会委员和军事法院院长;

  (十二)根据最高人民检察院检察长的提请,任免最高人民检察院副检察长、检察员、检察委员会委员和军事检察院检察长,并且批准省、自治区、直辖市的人民检察院检察长的任免;

  (十三)决定驻外全权代表的任免;

  (十四)决定同外国缔结的条约和重要协定的批准和废除;

  (十五)规定军人和外交人员的衔级制度和其他专门衔级制度;

  (十六)规定和决定授予国家的勋章和荣誉称号;

  (十七)决定特赦;

  (十八)在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,如果遇到国家遭受武装侵犯或者必须履行国际间共同防止侵略的条约的情况,决定战争状态的宣布;

  (十九)决定全国总动员或者局部动员;

  (二十)决定全国或者个别省、自治区、直辖市的戒严;

  (二十一)全国人民代表大会授予的其他职权。

  第六十八条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会委员长主持全国人民代表大会常务委员会的工作,召集全国人民代表大会常务委员会会议。副委员长、秘书长协助委员长工作。

  委员长、副委员长、秘书长组成委员长会议,处理全国人民代表大会常务委员会的重要日常工作。

  第六十九条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会对全国人民代表大会负责并报告工作。

  第七十条 全国人民代表大会设立民族委员会、法律委员会、财政经济委员会、教育科学文化卫生委员会、外事委员会、华侨委员会和其他需要设立的专门委员会。在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,各专门委员会受全国人民代表大会常务委员会的领导。

  各专门委员会在全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会领导下,研究、审议和拟订有关议案。

  第七十一条 全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会认为必要的时候,可以组织关于特定问题的调查委员会,并且根据调查委员会的报告,作出相应的决议。

  调查委员会进行调查的时候,一切有关的国家机关、社会团体和公民都有义务向它提供必要的材料。

  第七十二条 全国人民代表大会代表和全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员,有权依照法律规定的程序分别提出属于全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会职权范围内的议案。

  第七十三条 全国人民代表大会代表在全国人民代表大会开会期间,全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员在常务委员会开会期间,有权依照法律规定的程序提出对国务院或者国务院各部、各委员会的质询案。受质询的机关必须负责答复。

  第七十四条 全国人民代表大会代表,非经全国人民代表大会会议主席团许可,在全国人民代表大会闭会期间非经全国人民代表大会常务委员会许可,不受逮捕或者刑事审判。

  第七十五条 全国人民代表大会代表在全国人民代表大会各种会议上的发言和表决,不受法律追究。

  第七十六条 全国人民代表大会代表必须模范地遵守宪法和法律,保守国家秘密,并且在自己参加的生产、工作和社会活动中,协助宪法和法律的实施。

  全国人民代表大会代表应当同原选举单位和人民保持密切的联系,听取和反映人民的意见和要求,努力为人民服务。

  第七十七条 全国人民代表大会代表受原选举单位的监督。原选举单位有权依照法律规定的程序罢免本单位选出的代表。

  第七十八条 全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会的组织和工作程序由法律规定。

  第三章 国家机构 第二节 中华人民共和国主席

  第七十九条 中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。

  有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。

  中华人民共和国主席、副主席每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同,连续任职不得超过两届。

  第八十条 中华人民共和国主席根据全国人民代表大会的决定和全国人民代表大会常务委员会的决定,公布法律,任免国务院总理、副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长,授予国家的勋章和荣誉称号,发布特赦令,发布戒严令,宣布战争状态,发布动员令。

  第八十一条 中华人民共和国主席代表中华人民共和国,接受外国使节;根据全国人民代表大会常务委员会的决定,派遣和召回驻外全权代表,批准和废除同外国缔结的条约和重要协定。

  第八十二条 中华人民共和国副主席协助主席工作。

  中华人民共和国副主席受主席的委托,可以代行主席的部分职权。

  第八十三条 中华人民共和国主席、副主席行使职权到下届全国人民代表大会选出的主席、副主席就职为止。

  第八十四条 中华人民共和国主席缺位的时候,由副主席继任主席的职位。

  中华人民共和国副主席缺位的时候,由全国人民代表大会补选。

  中华人民共和国主席、副主席都缺位的时候,由全国人民代表大会补选;在补选以前,由全国人民代表大会常务委员会委员长暂时代理主席职位。

  第三章 国家机构 第三节 国务院

  第八十五条 中华人民共和国国务院,即中央人民政府,是最高国家权力机关的执行机关,是最高国家行政机关。

  第八十六条 国务院由下列人员组成:

  总理,

  副总理若干人,

  国务委员若干人,

  各部部长,

  各委员会主任,

  审计长,

  秘书长,

  国务院实行总理负责制。各部、各委员会实行部长、主任负责制。

  国务院的组织由法律规定。

  第八十七条 国务院每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同。

  总理、副总理、国务委员连续任职不得超过两届。

  第八十八条 总理领导国务院的工作。副总理、国务委员协助总理工作。

  总理、副总理、国务委员、秘书长组成国务院常务会议。

  总理召集和主持国务院常务会议和国务院全体会议。

  第八十九条 国务院行使下列职权:

  (一)根据宪法和法律,规定行政措施,制定行政法规,发布决定和命令;

  (二)向全国人民代表大会或者全国人民代表大会常务委员会提出议案;

  (三)规定各部和各委员会的任务和职责,统一领导各部和各委员会的工作,并且领导不属于各部和各委员会的全国性的行政工作;

  (四)统一领导全国地方各级国家行政机关的工作,规定中央和省、自治区、直辖市的国家行政机关的职权的具体划分;

  (五)编制和执行国民经济和社会发展计划和国家预算;

  (六)领导和管理经济工作和城乡建设;

  (七)领导和管理教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育和计划生育工作;

  (八)领导和管理民政、公安、司法行政和监察等工作;

  (九)管理对外事务,同外国缔结条约和协定;

  (十)领导和管理国防建设事业;

  (十一)领导和管理民族事务,保障少数民族的平等权利和民族自治地方的自治权利;

  (十二)保护华侨的正当的权利和利益,保护归侨和侨眷的合法的权利和利益;

  (十三)改变或者撤销各部、各委员会发布的不适当的命令、指示和规章;

  (十四)改变或者撤销地方各级国家行政机关的不适当的决定和命令;

  (十五)批准省、自治区、直辖市的区域划分,批准自治州、县、自治县、市的建置和区域划分;

  (十六)决定省、自治区、直辖市的范围内部分地区的戒严;

  (十七)审定行政机构的编制,依照法律规定任免、培训、考核和奖惩行政人员;

  (十八)全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会授予的其他职权。

  第九十条 国务院各部部长、各委员会主任负责本部门的工作;召集和主持部务会议或者委员会会议、委务会议,讨论决定本部门工作的重大问题。

  各部、各委员会根据法律和国务院的行政法规、决定、命令,在本部门的权限内,发布命令、指示和规章。

  第九十一条 国务院设立审计机关,对国务院各部门和地方各级政府的财政收支,对国家的财政金融机构和企业事业组织的财务收支,进行审计监督。

  审计机关在国务院总理领导下,依照法律规定独立行使审计监督权,不受其他行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。

  第九十二条 国务院对全国人民代表大会负责并报告工作;在全国人民代表大会闭会期间,对全国人民代表大会常务委员会负责并报告工作。

  第三章 国家机构 第四节 中央军事委员会

  第九十三条 中华人民共和国中央军事委员会领导全国武装力量。

  中央军事委员会由下列人员组成:

  主席,

  副主席若干人,

  委员若干人,

  中央军事委员会实行主席负责制。

  中央军事委员会每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同。

  第九十四条 中央军事委员会主席对全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会负责。

  第三章 国家机构 第五节 地方各级人民代表大会 和地方各级人民政府

  第九十五条 省、直辖市、县、市、市辖区、乡、民族乡、镇设立人民代表大会和人民政府#.

  地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级人民政府的组织由法律规定。

  自治区、自治州、自治县设立自治机关。自治机关的组织和工作根据宪法第三章第五节、第六节规定的基本原则由法律规定。

  第九十六条 地方各级人民代表大会是地方国家权力机关。

  县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会设立常务委员会。

  第九十七条 省、直辖市、设区的市的人民代表大会代表由下一级的人民代表大会选举;县、不设区的市、市辖区、乡、民族乡、镇的人民代表大会代表由选民直接选举。

  地方各级人民代表大会代表名额和代表产生办法由法律规定。

  第九十八条 省、直辖市、设区的市的人民代表大会每届任期五年。县、不设区的市、市辖区、乡、民族乡、镇的人民代表大会每届任期三年。

  第九十九条 地方各级人民代表大会在本行政区域内,保证宪法、法律、行政法规的遵守和执行;依照法律规定的权限,通过和发布决议,审查和决定地方的经济建设、文化建设和公共事业建设的计划。

  县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会审查和批准本行政区域内的国民经济和社会发展计划、预算以及它们的执行情况的报告;有权改变或者撤销本级人民代表大会常务委员会不适当的决定。

  民族乡的人民代表大会可以依照法律规定的权限采取适合民族特点的具体措施。

  第一百条 省、直辖市的人民代表大会和它们的常务委员会,在不同宪法、法律、行政法规相抵触的前提下,可以制定地方性法规,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。

  第一百零一条 地方各级人民代表大会分别选举并且有权罢免本级人民政府的省长和副省长、市长和副市长、县长和副县长、区长和副区长、乡长和副乡长、镇长和副镇长。

  县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会选举并且有权罢免本级人民法院院长和本级人民检察院检察长。选出或者罢免人民检察院检察长,须报上级人民检察院检察长提请该级人民代表大会常务委员会批准。

  第一百零二条 省、直辖市、设区的市的人民代表大会代表受原选举单位的监督;县、不设区的市、市辖区、乡、民族乡、镇的人民代表大会代表受选民的监督。

  地方各级人民代表大会代表的选举单位和选民有权依照法律规定的程序罢免由他们选出的代表。

  第一百零三条 县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会常务委员会由主任、副主任若干人和委员若干人组成,对本级人民代表大会负责并报告工作。

  县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会选举并有权罢免本级人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员。

  县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会常务委员会的组成人员不得担任国家行政机关、审判机关和检察机关的职务。

  第一百零四条 县级以上的地方各级人民代表大会常务委员会讨论、决定本行政区域内各方面工作的重大事项;监督本级人民政府、人民法院和人民检察院的工作;撤销本级人民政府的不适当的决定和命令;撤销下一级人民代表大会的不适当的决议;依照法律规定的权限决定国家机关工作人员的任免;在本级人民代表大会闭会期间,罢免和补选上一级人民代表大会的个别代表。

  第一百零五条 地方各级人民政府是地方各级国家权力机关的执行机关,是地方各级国家行政机关。

  地方各级人民政府实行省长、市长、县长、区长、乡长、镇长负责制。

  第一百零六条 地方各级人民政府每届任期同本级人民代表大会每届任期相同。

  第一百零七条 县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作,发布决定和命令,任免、培训、考核和奖惩行政工作人员。

  乡、民族乡、镇的人民政府执行本级人民代表大会的决议和上级国家行政机关的决定和命令,管理本行政区域内的行政工作。

  省、直辖市的人民政府决定乡、民族乡、镇的建置和区域划分。

  第一百零八条 县级以上的地方各级人民政府领导所属各工作部门和下级人民政府的工作,有权改变或者撤销所属各工作部门和下级人民政府的不适当的决定。

  第一百零九条 县级以上的地方各级人民政府设立审计机关。地方各级审计机关依照法律规定独立行使审计监督权,对本级人民政府和上一级审计机关负责。

  第一百一十条 地方各级人民政府对本级人民代表大会负责并报告工作。县级以上的地方各级人民政府在本级人民代表大会闭会期间,对本级人民代表大会常务委员会负责并报告工作。

  地方各级人民政府对上一级国家行政机关负责并报告工作。全国地方各级人民政府都是国务院统一领导下的国家行政机关,都服从国务院。

  第一百一十一条 城市和农村按居民居住地区设立的居民委员会或者村民委员会是基层群众性自治组织。居民委员会、村民委员会的主任、副主任和委员由居民选举。居民委员会、村民委员会同基层政权的相互关系由法律规定。

  居民委员会、村民委员会设人民调解、治安保卫、公共卫生等委员会,办理本居住地区的公共事务和公益事业,调解民间纠纷,协助维护社会治安,并且向人民政府反映群众的意见、要求和提出建议。

  第三章 国家机构 第六节 民族自治地方的自治机关

  第一百一十二条 民族自治地方的自治机关是自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会和人民政府。

  第一百一十三条 自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会中,除实行区域自治的民族的代表外,其他居住在本行政区域内的民族也应当有适当名额的代表。

  自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会常务委员会中应当有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任。

  第一百一十四条 自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。

  第一百一十五条 自治区、自治州、自治县的自治机关行使宪法第三章第五节规定的地方国家机关的职权,同时依照宪法、民族区域自治法和其他法律规定的权限行使自治权,根据本地方实际情况贯彻执行国家的法律、政策。

  第一百一十六条 民族自治地方的人民代表大会有权依照当地民族的政治、经济和文化的特点,制定自治条例和单行条例。自治区的自治条例和单行条例,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准后生效。自治州、自治县的自治条例和单行条例,报省或者自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准后生效,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。

  第一百一十七条 民族自治地方的自治机关有管理地方财政的自治权。凡是依照国家财政体制属于民族自治地方的财政收入,都应当由民族自治地方的自治机关自主地安排使用。

  第一百一十八条 民族自治地方的自治机关在国家计划的指导下,自主地安排和管理地方性的经济建设事业。

  国家在民族自治地方开发资源、建设企业的时候,应当照顾民族自治地方的利益。

  第一百一十九条 民族自治地方的自治机关自主地管理本地方的教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业,保护和整理民族的文化遗产,发展和繁荣民族文化。

  第一百二十条 民族自治地方的自治机关依照国家的军事制度和当地的实际需要,经国务院批准,可以组织本地方维护社会治安的公安部队。

  第一百二十一条 民族自治地方的自治机关在执行职务的时候,依照本民族自治地方自治条例的规定,使用当地通用的一种或者几种语言文字。

  第一百二十二条 国家从财政、物资、技术等方面帮助各少数民族加速发展经济建设和文化建设事业。

  国家帮助民族自治地方从当地民族中大量培养各级干部、各种专业人才和技术工人。

  第三章 国家机构 第七节 人民法院和人民检察院

  第一百二十三条 中华人民共和国人民法院是国家的审判机关。

  第一百二十四条 中华人民共和国设立最高人民法院、地方各级人民法院和军事法院等专门人民法院。

  最高人民法院院长每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同,连续任职不得超过两届。

  人民法院的组织由法律规定。

  第一百二十五条 人民法院审理案件,除法律规定的特别情况外,一律公开进行。被告人有权获得辩护。

  第一百二十六条 人民法院依照法律规定独立行使审判权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。

  第一百二十七条 最高人民法院是最高审判机关。

  最高人民法院监督地方各级人民法院和专门人民法院的审判工作,上级人民法院监督下级人民法院的审判工作。

  第一百二十八条 最高人民法院对全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会负责。地方各级人民法院对产生它的国家权力机关负责。

  第一百二十九条 中华人民共和国人民检察院是国家的法律监督机关。

  第一百三十条 中华人民共和国设立最高人民检察院、地方各级人民检察院和军事检察院等专门人民检察院。

  最高人民检察院检察长每届任期同全国人民代表大会每届任期相同,连续任职不得超过两届。

  人民检察院的组织由法律规定。

  第一百三十一条 人民检察院依照法律规定独立行使检察权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。

  第一百三十二条 最高人民检察院是最高检察机关。

  最高人民检察院领导地方各级人民检察院和专门人民检察院的工作,上级人民检察院领导下级人民检察院的工作。

  第一百三十三条 最高人民检察院对全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会负责。地方各级人民检察院对产生它的国家权力机关和上级人民检察院负责。

  第一百三十四条 各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院和人民检察院对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。

  在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审理;起诉书、判决书、布告和其他文书应当根据实际需要使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。

  第一百三十五条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关办理刑事案件,应当分工负责,互相配合,互相制约,以保证准确有效地执行法律。

  第四章 国旗、国徽、首都

  第一百三十六条 中华人民共和国国旗是五星红旗。

  第一百三十七条 中华人民共和国国徽,中间是五星照耀下的天安门,周围是谷穗和齿轮。

  第一百三十八条 中华人民共和国首都是北京。

  【名称】 CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

  【题注】

  Important Notice: (注意事项)

英文本源自中华人民共和国务院法制局编译, 中国法制出版社出版的《中华人民
  共和国涉外法规汇编》(1991年7月版).
      当发生歧意时, 应以法律法规颁布单位发布的中文原文为准.
  This  English  document  is  coming  from  "LAWS  AND  REGULATIONS  OF THE
  PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF  CHINA  GOVERNING  FOREIGN-RELATED  MATTERS" (1991.7)
  which  is  compiled  by  the  Brueau  of  Legislative Affairs of the State
  Council of  the  People's Republic of China, and is published by the China
  Legal System Publishing House.
  In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail.

  Whole Document (法规全文)

CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
  (Adopted at the Fifth  Session  of  the  Fifth  National  People's
  Congress and promulgated for implementation by  the  Proclamation  of  the
  National People's Congress on December 4, 1982)

  Contents

Preamble
  Chapter I     General Principle
  Chapter II    The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
  Chapter III   The Structure of the State
                Section 1 The National People's Congress
                Section 2 The President of the People's Republic of China
                Section 3 The State Council
                Section 4 The Central Military Commission
                Section 5 The Local People's Congresses and Local People's
                Governments at Various Levels
                Section 6 The Organs of Self-Government of National
                Autonomous Areas Section 7 The People's Courts and the
                People's Procuratorates
  Chapter IV    The National Flag , the National Emblem and the Capital

  Preamble

  China is a country with one of the longest histories  in  the  world.  The
  people of all of China's nationalities have jointly created a  culture  of
  grandeur and have a glorious revolutionary tradition.
  After 1840, feudal China was gradually turned  into  a  semi-colonial  and
  semi-feudal country. The  Chinese  people  waged  many  successive  heroic
  struggles for national independence and liberation and for  democracy  and
  freedom.
  Great and earthshaking historical changes have taken place in China in the
  20th century.  The Revolution of 1911, led by Dr. Sun  Yat-sen,  abolished
  the feudal monarchy and gave birth to  the  Republic  of  China.  But  the
  historic mission of  the  Chinese  people  to  overthrow  imperialism  and
  feudalism remained unaccomplished.
  After waging protracted and arduous struggles, armed and otherwise,  along
  a zigzag course, the Chinese  people  of  all  nationalities  led  by  the
  Communist  Party  of  China  with  Chairman  Mao  Zedong  as  its   leader
  ultimately, in 1949, overthrew the  rule  of  imperialism,  feudalism  and
  bureaucrat-capitalism,  won  a  great  victory   in   the   New-Democratic
  Revolution and founded the People's Republic  of  China.  Since  then  the
  Chinese people have taken control of state power and become masters of the
  country. After the founding of  the  People's  Republic,  China  gradually
  achieved its transition from a New-Democratic to a socialist society.  The
  socialist  transformation  of  the  private  ownership  of  the  means  of
  production has been completed, the system of exploitation of  man  by  man
  abolished and the socialist system established.  The  people's  democratic
  dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers
  and peasants, which is in essence the dictatorship of the proletariat, has
  been consolidated and  developed.  The  Chinese  people  and  the  Chinese
  People's  Liberation  Army  have  defeated  imperialist   and   hegemonist
  aggression, sabotage and armed provocations and have  thereby  safeguarded
  China's national independence and security and strengthened  its  national
  defence. Major successes have been achieved in  economic  development.  An
  independent and relatively comprehensive socialist system of industry  has
  basically  been  established.  There  has  been  a  marked   increase   in
  agricultural  production.  Significant  advances   have   been   made   in
  educational, scientific and  cultural  undertakings,  while  education  in
  socialist ideology has produced noteworthy results. The life of the people
  has improved considerably.
  Both the victory in China's New-Democratic Revolution and the successes in
  its socialist cause have been  achieved  by  the  Chinese  people  of  all
  nationalities, under the leadership of the Communist Party  of  China  and
  the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and  Mao  Zedong  Thought,  by  upholding
  truth,  correcting  errors  and  surmounting  numerous  difficulties   and
  hardships. The basic task of the  nation  in  the  years  to  come  is  to
  concentrate its effort on socialist modernization. Under the leadership of
  the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and  Mao
  Zedong Thought, the Chinese people of all nationalities will  continue  to
  adhere to the people's democratic dictatorship  and  the  socialist  road,
  steadily improve  socialist  institutions,  develop  socialist  democracy,
  improve the socialist legal system, and work hard  and  self-reliantly  to
  modernize  the  country's  industry,  agriculture,  national  defence  and
  science and technology step by step to turn China into a socialist country
  with a high level of culture and democracy.
  The exploiting classes as such have been abolished in our country.
  However, class struggle will continue to exist within certain bounds for a
  long time to come. The Chinese people must fight against those forces  and
  elements, both at home and abroad, that are hostile to  China's  socialist
  system and try to undermine it.  Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of
  the People's Republic of China. It is the inviolable duty of  all  Chinese
  people, including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great  task
  of reunifying the motherland.
  In building socialism it is essential to rely  on  workers,  peasants  and
  intellectuals and to unite all forces that can  be  united.  In  the  long
  years of revolution and construction, there  has  been  formed  under  the
  leadership of the Communist Party of China a broad patriotic united  front
  which is composed of the democratic parties and people's organizations and
  which embraces all socialist working  people,  all  patriots  who  support
  socialism and  all  patriots  who  stand  for  the  reunification  of  the
  motherland. This  united  front  will  continue  to  be  consolidated  and
  developed. The  Chinese  People's  Political  Consultative  Conference,  a
  broadly based representative organization of the united  front  which  has
  played a significant historical role, will play  a  still  more  important
  role in the country's political and social life, in  promoting  friendship
  with other countries and in the struggle for socialist  modernization  and
  for the reunification and unity of the country.
  The People's Republic of China is a unitary  multinational  state  created
  jointly by the people of all its  nationalities.  Socialist  relations  of
  equality, unity and mutual assistance  have  been  established  among  the
  nationalities and will continue to be strengthened.  In  the  struggle  to
  safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is necessary to  combat  big-
  nation chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, and  to  combat  local  national
  chauvinism. The state will do its utmost to promote the common  prosperity
  of  all  the  nationalities.  China's  achievements  in   revolution   and
  construction are inseparable from the support of the people of the world.
  The future of China is closely linked to the future of  the  world.  China
  consistently carries out an independent foreign policy and adheres to  the
  five  principles  of  mutual  respect  for  sovereignty  and   territorial
  integrity,  mutual  non-aggression,  non-interference  in   each   other's
  internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence in
  developing diplomatic relations and economic and cultural  exchanges  with
  other countries. China consistently opposes  imperialism,  hegemonism  and
  colonialism, works to strengthen unity with the people of other countries,
  supports the oppressed nations and the developing countries in their  just
  struggle to win and  preserve  national  independence  and  develop  their
  national economies, and strives to safeguard world peace and  promote  the
  cause of human progress.
  This  Constitution,  in  legal  form,  affirms  the  achievements  of  the
  struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic
  system and basic tasks of the state; it is  the  fundamental  law  of  the
  state and has supreme legal authority. The people  of  all  nationalities,
  all state organs, the armed  forces,  all  political  parties  and  public
  organizations and all enterprises and institutions  in  the  country  must
  take the Constitution as the basic standard of conduct, and they have  the
  duty  to  uphold  the  dignity  of  the  Constitution   and   ensure   its
  implementation.

  Chapter I General Principles

  Article 1
  The People's Republic of China is a socialist  state  under  the  people's
  democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance
  of workers and peasants.  The socialist system is the basic system of  the
  People's Republic of China. Disruption of  the  socialist  system  by  any
  organization or individual is prohibited.
  Article 2
  All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people.
  The National People's  Congress  and  the  local  people's  congresses  at
  various levels are the organs through  which  the  people  exercise  state
  power.
  The people administer state affairs  and  manage  economic,  cultural  and
  social affairs through various channels and in various ways in  accordance
  with the law.
  Article 3
  The state organs of the People's Republic of China apply the principle  of
  democratic centralism.
  The National People's  Congress  and  the  local  people's  congresses  at
  various levels are constituted  through  democratic  elections.  They  are
  responsible to the people and subject to their supervision.
  All administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs  of  the  state  are
  created by the people's congresses to which they are  responsible  and  by
  which they are supervised.  The division of functions and  powers  between
  the central and local state organs is guided by the  principle  of  giving
  full scope to the initiative and enthusiasm of the local authorities under
  the unified leadership of the central authorities.
  Article 4
  All nationalities in the People's Republic of China are equal.  The  state
  protects the lawful rights and interests of the minority nationalities and
  upholds  and  develops  a  relationship  of  equality,  unity  and  mutual
  assistance among all of China's nationalities. Discrimination against  and
  oppression of any nationality are prohibited; any act which undermines the
  unity of the nationalities or instigates division is prohibited.
  The  state  assists  areas  inhabited   by   minority   nationalities   in
  accelerating their economic and  cultural  development  according  to  the
  characteristics and needs of the various minority nationalities.
  Regional  autonomy  is  practised  in  areas  where  people  of   minority
  nationalities live in concentrated communities; in these areas  organs  of
  self-government are established to exercise the  power  of  autonomy.  All
  national autonomous areas are integral parts of the People's  Republic  of
  China.
  All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and
  written languages and  to  preserve  or  reform  their  own  folkways  and
  customs.
  Article 5
  The state upholds the  uniformity  and  dignity  of  the  socialist  legal
  system.
  No laws or administrative or local rules and  regulations  may  contravene
  the Constitution. All  state  organs,  the  armed  forces,  all  political
  parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions must
  abide by the Constitution and the  law.  All  acts  in  violation  of  the
  Constitution or the law must be investigated.
  No organization or individual is privileged to be beyond the  Constitution
  or the law.
  Article 6
  The basis of the socialist economic system of  the  People's  Republic  of
  China is socialist public ownership of the means  of  production,  namely,
  ownership by the whole people and  collective  ownership  by  the  working
  people.
  The  system  of  socialist  public  ownership  supersedes  the  system  of
  exploitation of man by  man;  it  applies  the  principle  of  "from  each
  according  to   his   ability,   to   each   according   to   his   work."
  Article 7
  The state economy is the sector of socialist economy  under  ownership  by
  the whole people; it is the leading force in  the  national  economy.  The
  state ensures the consolidation and growth of the state economy.
  Article 8
  Rural people's communes, agricultural  producers  cooperatives  and  other
  forms of cooperatives economy, such as producers', supply  and  marketing,
  credit and consumers cooperatives,  belong  to  the  sector  of  socialist
  economy under collective ownership by the working people.  Working  people
  who are members of rural economic collective have the  right,  within  the
  limits prescribed by law,  to  farm  plots  of  cropland  and  hilly  land
  allotted for their private use, engage in  household  sideline  production
  and raise privately owned livestock.
  The various forms of cooperative economy in the cities and towns, such  as
  those in the handicraft, industrial, building, transport,  commercial  and
  service trades, all belong  to  the  sector  of  socialist  economy  under
  collective ownership by the working people.  The state protects the lawful
  rights and interests of  the  urban  and  rural  economic  collective  and
  encourages, guides and helps the growth of the collective economy.
  Article 9
  All mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grassland,  unreclaimed
  land, beaches and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is,
  by the whole  people,  with  the  exception  of  the  forests,  mountains,
  grasslands, unreclaimed land and beaches that are owned by  collective  in
  accordance with the law.
  The state ensures the rational use of natural resources and protects  rare
  animals and plants. Appropriation or damaging of natural resources by  any
  organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited.
  Article 10
  Land in the cities is owned by the state.
  Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by  collectives  except  for
  those portions which belong to the state in accordance with the law; house
  sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned
  by collectives.
  The state may, in the public interest, requisition land  for  its  use  in
  accordance with the law.
  No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or lease land  or
  otherwise engage in the transfer of land by unlawful means.
  All organizations and individuals using land must ensure its rational use.
  Article 11
  The individual economy of urban and rural working people, operating within
  the limits prescribed by law, is a  complement  to  the  socialist  public
  economy. The state  protects  the  lawful  rights  and  interests  of  the
  individual economy.
  The state  guides,  assists  and  supervises  the  individual  economy  by
  administrative control.
  Article 12
  Socialist public property is inviolable.
  The state protects socialist public property. Appropriation or damaging of
  state or collective property by any organization or individual by whatever
  means is prohibited.
  Article 13
  The state protects the right of citizens to own  lawfully  earned  income,
  savings, houses and other lawful property.
  The state protects according to law  the  right  of  citizens  to  inherit
  private property.
  Article 14
  The state  continuously  raises  labour  productivity,  improves  economic
  results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the enthusiasm  of
  the  working  people,  raising  the  level  of  their   technical   skill,
  disseminating advanced science and technology, improving  the  systems  of
  economic  administration  and   enterprise   operation   and   management,
  instituting the socialist system of responsibility in  various  forms  and
  improving the organization of work.
  The state practises strict economy and combats waste.
  The state  properly  apportions  accumulation  and  consumption,  concerns
  itself with the interests of the collective and the individual as well  as
  of the state and, on the basis of expanded production, gradually  improves
  the material and cultural life of the people.
  Article 15
  The state practises planned economy  on  the  basis  of  socialist  public
  ownership. It ensures the proportionate  and  coordinated  growth  of  the
  national economy through overall balancing by economic  planning  and  the
  supplementary role of  regulation  by  the  market.   Disturbance  of  the
  socioeconomic order or disruption  of  the  state  economic  plan  by  any
  organization or individual is prohibited.
  Article 16
  State enterprises have decision-making power with regard to operation  and
  management within the limits prescribed by law,  on  condition  that  they
  submit to unified leadership by the state and fulfil all their obligations
  under the state plan.  State enterprises  practise  democratic  management
  through congresses of workers and staff and in other  ways  in  accordance
  with the law.
  Article 17
  Collective economic organizations have decision-making power in conducting
  independent  economic  activities,  on  condition  that  they  accept  the
  guidance of the state plan and abide by the relevant laws.
  Collective  economic  organizations  practise  democratic  management   in
  accordance with the law. The  entire  body  of  their  workers  elects  or
  removes their managerial personnel and decides on major issues  concerning
  operation and management.
  Article 18
  The People's Republic of China permits foreign enterprises, other  foreign
  economic organizations and individual foreigners to invest in China and to
  enter into various forms of economic cooperation with Chinese  enterprises
  and other Chinese economic organizations in accordance with the law of the
  People's Republic  of  China.   All  foreign  enterprises,  other  foreign
  economic organizations as well as Chinese-foreign  joint  ventures  within
  Chinese territory shall abide by the  law  of  the  People's  Republic  of
  China. Their lawful rights and interests are protected by the law  of  the
  People's Republic of China.
  Article 19
  The state undertakes the development of socialist education and  works  to
  raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.
  The  state  establishes  and  administers  schools   of   various   types,
  universalizes  compulsory  primary  education  and   promotes   secondary,
  vocational and higher education as well as preschool education.
  The state develops educational facilities in order to eliminate illiteracy
  and provide political, scientific, technical and professional education as
  well as general education for workers, peasants, state  functionaries  and
  other working people. It encourages  people  to  become  educated  through
  independent study.
  The  state  encourages  the  collective  economic   organizations,   state
  enterprises and institutions and other sectors  of  society  to  establish
  educational institutions of various types in accordance with the law.
  The state promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua (common speech based on
  Beijing pronunciation).
  Article 20
  The state promotes the development of the  natural  and  social  sciences,
  disseminates knowledge of science and technology, and commends and rewards
  achievements in scientific research as well as  technological  innovations
  and inventions.
  Article 21
  The state develops medical and health services, promotes  modern  medicine
  and traditional Chinese medicine, encourages and supports the  setting  up
  of  various  medical  and  health  facilities  by   the   rural   economic
  collectives,  state  enterprises  and   institutions   and   neighbourhood
  organizations, and promotes health and sanitation  activities  of  a  mass
  character, all for the protection of the people's health.
  The state develops physical culture and promotes mass sports activities to
  improve the people's physical fitness.
  Article 22
  The state promotes the development of art and literature, the press, radio
  and  television  broadcasting,  publishing  and   distribution   services,
  libraries, museums, cultural centres and other cultural undertakings  that
  serve the people and socialism, and it sponsors mass cultural activities.
  The state protects sites  of  scenic  and  historical  interest,  valuable
  cultural monuments and relics  and  other  significant  items  of  China's
  historical and cultural heritage.
  Article 23
  The state trains specialized personnel in all fields who serve  socialism,
  expands the ranks of intellectuals and creates  conditions  to  give  full
  scope to their role in socialist modernization.
  Article 24
  The state strengthens the building of a socialist society with an advanced
  culture and ideology  by  promoting  education  in  high  ideals,  ethics,
  general  knowledge,  discipline  and  legality,  and  by   promoting   the
  formulation and observance of rules  of  conduct  and  common  pledges  by
  various sections of the people  in  urban  and  rural  areas.   The  state
  advocates the civic virtues of love of the motherland, of the  people,  of
  labour, of science and of  socialism.  It  conducts  education  among  the
  people in patriotism and collectivism, in internationalism  and  communism
  and in dialectical  and  historical  materialism,  to  combat  capitalist,
  feudal and other decadent ideas.
  Article 25
  The state promotes family planning so that population growth may  fit  the
  plans for economic and social development.
  Article 26
  The state protects and improves the environment in which people  live  and
  the ecological environment. It prevents and controls pollution  and  other
  public hazards.  The state organizes and encourages afforestation and  the
  protection of forests.
  Article 27
  All  state  organs  carry  out  the  principle  of  simple  and  efficient
  administration, the system of responsibility for work and  the  system  of
  training  functionaries  and  appraising  their   performance   in   order
  constantly to improve the  quality  of  work  and  efficiency  and  combat
  bureaucratism.
  All state organs and functionaries must rely on the support of the people,
  keep in close touch with them, heed their opinions and suggestions, accept
  their supervision and do their best to serve them.
  Article 28
  The state maintains public order  and  suppresses  treasonable  and  other
  counter-revolutionary activities; it penalizes  criminal  activities  that
  endanger public security and disrupt the  socialist  economy  as  well  as
  other criminal activities; and it punishes and reforms criminals.
  Article 29
  The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people.
  Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist aggression,  defend
  the motherland, safeguard the people's  peaceful  labour,  participate  in
  national reconstruction and do their best to serve the people.
  The   state   strengthens   the   revolutionization,   modernization   and
  regularization of the armed forces in order to increase  national  defence
  capability.
  Article 30
  The administrative division of  the  People's  Republic  of  China  is  as
  follows:
  (1)  The  country  is  divided  into  provinces,  autonomous  regions  and
  municipalities directly under the Central Government;
  (2)  Provinces  and  autonomous  regions  are  divided   into   autonomous
  prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, and cities;
  (3)  Counties  and  autonomous  counties  are  divided   into   townships,
  nationality townships, and towns.
  Municipalities directly under  the  Central  Government  and  other  large
  cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are
  divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities.
  All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are
  national autonomous areas.

  Article 31
  The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The
  systems to be  instituted  in  special  administrative  regions  shall  be
  prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in  the  light
  of specific conditions.
  Article 32
  The People's Republic of China protects the lawful rights and interests of
  foreigners within Chinese territory; foreigners on Chinese territory  must
  abide by the laws of the People's Republic of China.
  The People's Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who  request
  it for political reasons.

  Chapter II The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens

  Article 33
  All persons holding the nationality of the People's Republic of China  are
  citizens of the People's Republic of China.
  All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before the law.
  Every citizen is entitled to the rights and at the same time must  perform
  the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law.
  Article 34
  All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of
  18 have the right to vote and stand for  election,  regardless  of  ethnic
  status,  race,  sex,  occupation,  family  background,  religious  belief,
  education, property status or length of residence, except persons deprived
  of political rights according to law.
  Article 35
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the
  press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration.
  Article 36
  Citizens of the People's Republic of  China  enjoy  freedom  of  religious
  belief.  No state organ, public  organization  or  individual  may  compel
  citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor  may  they
  discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not  believe  in,  any
  religion.
  The state protects normal religious activities. No one  may  make  use  of
  religion to engage in activities that disrupt  public  order,  impair  the
  health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state.
  Religious bodies and religious affairs are  not  subject  to  any  foreign
  domination.
  Article 37
  Freedom of the person of citizens of the People's  Republic  of  China  is
  inviolable.  No citizen may be arrested except with  the  approval  or  by
  decision of a people's procuratorate or by decision of a  people's  court,
  and arrests must be made by a public security organ.
  Unlawful detention or deprivation or restriction of  citizens  freedom  of
  the person by other means is prohibited, and unlawful search of the person
  of citizens is prohibited.
  Article 38
  The personal dignity of citizens of the  People's  Republic  of  China  is
  inviolable.   Insult,  libel,  false  accusation  or  false  incrimination
  directed against citizens by any means is prohibited.
  Article 39
  The  residences  of  citizens  of  the  People's  Republic  of  China  are
  inviolable. Unlawful search of, or intrusion into, a  citizen's  residence
  is prohibited.
  Article 40
  Freedom and privacy of correspondence of citizens of the People's Republic
  of China are protected by law. No organization or individual may,  on  any
  ground, infringe upon citizens  freedom  and  privacy  of  correspondence,
  except in cases where, to meet the needs of state security or of  criminal
  investigation, public security or procuratorial organs  are  permitted  to
  censor correspondence in accordance with procedures prescribed by law.
  Article 41
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to criticize and
  make suggestions regarding any state organ or functionary.  Citizens  have
  the right to make to relevant state organs complaints or charges  against,
  or exposures of, any state organ or functionary for violation of  the  law
  or dereliction of  duty;  but  fabrication  or  distortion  of  facts  for
  purposes of libel or false incrimination is prohibited.
  The state organ concerned must deal with complaints, charges or  exposures
  made by citizens in a responsible manner after ascertaining the facts.  No
  one may suppress such  complaints,  charges  and  exposures  or  retaliate
  against the citizens making them.  Citizens who have suffered losses as  a
  result of infringement of  their  civic  rights  by  any  state  organ  or
  functionary have the right to compensation in accordance with the law.
  Article 42
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right as well  as  the
  duty to work.  Through various channels, the state creates conditions  for
  employment, enhances occupational  safety  and  health,  improves  working
  conditions  and,  on  the  basis   of   expanded   production,   increases
  remuneration for work and welfare benefits.  Work is a  matter  of  honour
  for every citizen who is  able  to  work.  All  working  people  in  state
  enterprises and in urban and rural economic  collectives  should  approach
  their work as the masters of the country that they are. The state promotes
  socialist labour emulation, and commends and rewards  model  and  advanced
  workers. The state encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labour.
  The state provides necessary vocational training for citizens before  they
  are employed.
  Article 43
  Working people in the People's Republic of China have the right to rest.
  The state expands facilities for the rest and recuperation of the  working
  people and prescribes working hours and vacations for workers and staff.
  Article 44
  The state applies the system  of  retirement  for  workers  and  staff  of
  enterprises and institutions and for  functionaries  of  organs  of  state
  according to law. The livelihood of retired personnel is  ensured  by  the
  state and society.
  Article 45
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China  have  the  right  to  material
  assistance from the state and society when they are old, ill or disabled.
  The state develops social insurance, social relief and medical and  health
  services that are required for citizens to enjoy this right.
  The state and society ensure the livelihood of  disabled  members  of  the
  armed forces, provide  pensions  to  the  families  of  martyrs  and  give
  preferential treatment to the families of military personnel.
  The state and society help make arrangements for the work, livelihood  and
  education of the blind, deaf-mutes and other handicapped citizens.
  Article 46
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the duty as  well  as  the
  right to receive education.
  The state promotes the all-round development of children and young people,
  morally, intellectually and physically.
  Article 47
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the freedom to  engage  in
  scientific research, literary and artistic  creation  and  other  cultural
  pursuits. The state encourages and assists creative endeavors conducive to
  the interests  of  the  people  that  are  made  by  citizens  engaged  in
  education, science, technology, literature, art and other cultural work.
  Article 48
  Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all
  spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
  The state  protects  the  rights  and  interests  of  women,  applies  the
  principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women  alike  and  trains
  and selects cadres from among women.
  Article 49
  Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the state.
  Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning.
  Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who  are  minors,
  and children who have come of age have the  duty  to  support  and  assist
  their parents.  Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited.
  Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited.
  Article 50
  The  People's  Republic  of  China  protects  the  legitimate  rights  and
  interests of Chinese nationals residing abroad  and  protects  the  lawful
  rights and interests of  returned  overseas  Chinese  and  of  the  family
  members of Chinese nationals residing abroad.
  Article 51
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China, in exercising  their  freedoms
  and rights, may not infringe upon the interests of the state,  of  society
  or of the collective, or upon the lawful  freedoms  and  rights  of  other
  citizens.
  Article 52
  It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to  safeguard
  the unification of the country and the unity of all its nationalities.
  Article 53
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China must abide by the  Constitution
  and the law, keep state secrets, protect public property,  observe  labour
  discipline and public order and respect social ethics.
  Article 54
  It is the duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to  safeguard
  the security, honour and interests of the motherland; they must not commit
  acts detrimental to the security, honour and interests of the motherland.
  Article 55
  It is the sacred duty of every citizen of the People's Republic  of  China
  to defend the motherland and resist aggression.
  It is the honorable duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China  to
  perform military service and join the militia in accordance with the law.
  Article 56
  It is duty of citizens of the People's Republic of China to pay  taxes  in
  accordance with the law.

  Chapter III The Structure of the State

Section 1 The National People's Congress
  Article 57
  The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of  China  is  the
  highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee
  of the National People's Congress.
  Article 58
  The National People's Congress and its  Standing  Committee  exercise  the
  legislative power of the state.
  Article 59
  The National People's Congress is composed of deputies  elected  from  the
  provinces,  autonomous  regions  and  municipalities  directly  under  the
  Central Government and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All  the
  minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
  Election of deputies to the National People's Congress is conducted by the
  Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
  The number of deputies to the National People's Congress and the procedure
  of their election are prescribed by law.
  Article 60
  The National People's Congress is elected for a term of five years.
  The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress must  ensure  the
  completion of election of deputies to  the  succeeding  National  People's
  Congress two months prior to the expiration of the term of office  of  the
  current National People's  Congress.  Should  extraordinary  circumstances
  prevent such an election, it may be postponed and the term  of  office  of
  the current National People's Congress extended by the decision of a  vote
  of more than two-thirds of all those on  the  Standing  Committee  of  the
  current National People's  Congress.  The  election  of  deputies  to  the
  succeeding National People's Congress must be completed  within  one  year
  after the termination of such extraordinary circumstances.
  Article 61
  The National People's Congress  meets  in  session  once  a  year  and  is
  convened by its Standing Committee. A session  of  the  National  People's
  Congress may be convened at any  time  the  Standing  Committee  deems  it
  necessary or when more than one-fifth of  the  deputies  to  the  National
  People's Congress so propose.
  When the National People's  Congress  meets,  it  elects  a  Presidium  to
  conduct its session.
  Article 62
  The National People's  Congress  exercises  the  following  functions  and
  powers:
  (1) to amend the Constitution;
  (2) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
  (3) to enact and amend  basic  laws  governing  criminal  offences,  civil
  affairs, the state organs and other matters;
  (4) to elect the President and the Vice-President of the People's Republic
  of China;
  (5) to decide on the choice of the  Premier  of  the  State  Council  upon
  nomination by the President of the People's Republic of China, and on  the
  choice of the Vice-Premiers, State Councillors,  Ministers  in  charge  of
  ministries or commissions, the Auditor-General and  the  Secretary-General
  of the State Council upon nomination by the Premier;
  (6) to elect the Chairman of the Central  Military  Commission  and,  upon
  nomination by the Chairman, to decide on the choice of all  other  members
  of the Central Military Commission;
  (7) to elect the President of the Supreme People's Court;
  (8) to elect the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate;
  (9) to examine and approve the  plan  for  national  economic  and  social
  development and the report on its implementation;
  (10) to examine and approve  the  state  budget  and  the  report  on  its
  implementation;
  (11) to alter or annul inappropriate decisions of the  Standing  Committee
  of the National People's Congress;
  (12) to approve the establishment of provinces,  autonomous  regions,  and
  municipalities directly under the Central Government;
  (13) to decide on the establishment of special administrative regions  and
  the systems to be instituted there;
  (14) to decide on questions of war and peace; and
  (15) to exercise such other functions and powers as the highest  organ  of
  state power should exercise.
  Article 63
  The National People's Congress has the power to  remove  from  office  the
  following persons:
  (1) the President and the  Vice-President  of  the  People's  Republic  of
  China;
  (2) the Premier, Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge  of
  ministries or commissions, the Auditor-General and  the  Secretary-General
  of the State Council;
  (3) the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and other  members  of
  the Commission;
  (4) the President of the Supreme People's Court; and
  (5) the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate.
  Article 64
  Amendments to  the  Constitution  are  to  be  proposed  by  the  Standing
  Committee of the National People's Congress or by more than  one-fifth  of
  the deputies to the National People's Congress and adopted by  a  vote  of
  more than two-thirds of all the deputies to the Congress.
  Laws and resolutions are to be adopted by  a  majority  vote  of  all  the
  deputies to the National People's Congress.
  Article 65
  The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress  is  composed  of
  the following: the Chairman;
  the Vice-Chairmen;
  the Secretary-General; and
  the members.
  Minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation  on  the
  Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
  The National People's Congress  elects,  and  has  the  power  to  recall,
  members of its Standing Committee.
  No one on the Standing Committee of the National People's  Congress  shall
  hold office in any of the administrative, judicial or procuratorial organs
  of the state.
  Article 66
  The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress  is  elected  for
  the same term as the National People's Congress;  it  shall  exercise  its
  functions and powers until a new Standing  Committee  is  elected  by  the
  succeeding National People's Congress.  The Chairman and Vice-Chairmen  of
  the Standing Committee shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
  Article 67
  The Standing Committee of the National  People's  Congress  exercises  the
  following functions and powers:
  (1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its enforcement;
  (2) to enact and amend laws, with the exception of those which  should  be
  enacted by the National People's Congress;
  (3) to partially supplement and amend, when the National People's Congress
  is not in session, laws enacted by the National People's Congress provided
  that the basic principles of these laws are not contravened;
  (4) to interpret laws;
  (5) to review and approve, when the National People's Congress is  not  in
  session, partial adjustments to the plan for national economic and  social
  development or to the state budget that prove necessary in the  course  of
  their implementation;
  (6) to supervise the work of  the  State  Council,  the  Central  Military
  Commission,  the  Supreme  People's  Court  and   the   Supreme   People's
  Procuratorate;
  (7) to annul those administrative  rules  and  regulations,  decisions  or
  orders of the State Council that contravene the Constitution or the law;
  (8) to annul those local regulations or decisions of the organs  of  state
  power of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly  under
  the Central Government that contravene the Constitution, the  law  or  the
  administrative rules and regulations;
  (9) to decide, when the National People's Congress is not in  session,  on
  the choice of Ministers  in  charge  of  ministries  or  commissions,  the
  Auditor-General  or  the  Secretary-General  of  the  State  Council  upon
  nomination by the Premier of the State Council;
  (10) to decide, upon nomination by the Chairman of  the  Central  Military
  Commission, on the choice of other members of  the  Commission,  when  the
  National People's Congress is not in session;
  (11) to appoint or remove, at the recommendation of the President  of  the
  Supreme People's Court, the Vice-Presidents  and  Judges  of  the  Supreme
  People's Court, members of its Judicial Committee and the President of the
  Military Court;
  (12) to appoint or remove, at the recommendation of the Procurator-General
  of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Deputy Procurators-General  and
  procurators  of  the  Supreme  People's  Procuratorate,  members  of   its
  Procuratorial  Committee  and  the  Chief  Procurator  of   the   Military
  Procuratorate, and to approve the appointment  or  removal  of  the  chief
  procurators  of  the  people's  procuratorates  of  provinces,  autonomous
  regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government;
  (13)  to  decide  on  the  appointment  or   recall   of   plenipotentiary
  representatives abroad;
  (14) to decide on the ratification or abrogation of treaties and important
  agreements concluded with foreign states;
  (15) to institute systems of titles and ranks for military and  diplomatic
  personnel and of other specific titles and ranks;
  (16) to institute state medals and titles of honour and  decide  on  their
  conferment;
  (17) to decide on the granting of special pardons;
  (18) to decide, when the National People's Congress is not in session,  on
  the proclamation of a state of war in the event of an armed attack on  the
  country or in fulfillment of international treaty  obligations  concerning
  common defence against aggression;
  (19) to decide on general mobilization or partial mobilization;
  (20) to decide on the imposition of martial law throughout the country  or
  in particular provinces, autonomous regions,  or  municipalities  directly
  under the Central Government; and
  (21) to exercise such other functions and powers as the National  People's
  Congress may assign to it.
  Article 68
  The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National  People's  Congress
  directs the work of the Standing Committee and convenes its meetings.  The
  Vice-Chairmen and the Secretary-General assist the Chairman in his work.
  The Chairman, the Vice-Chairmen and the Secretary-General  constitute  the
  Council of Chairmen which handles the important  day-to-day  work  of  the
  Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
  Article 69
  The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is responsible to
  the National People's Congress and reports on its work to the Congress.
  Article 70
  The National People's Congress establishes a  Nationalities  Committee,  a
  Law Committee, a Finance and Economic Committee,  an  Education,  Science,
  Culture and Public Health  Committee,  a  Foreign  Affairs  Committee,  an
  Overseas Chinese Committee  and  such  other  special  committees  as  are
  necessary. These special  committees  work  under  the  direction  of  the
  Standing Committee of the National People's Congress when the Congress  is
  not in session.
  The special committees examine, discuss and draw  up  relevant  bills  and
  draft resolutions under the direction of the  National  People's  Congress
  and its Standing Committee.
  Article 71
  The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee may,  when  they
  deem it necessary, appoint committees of inquiry into  specific  questions
  and adopt relevant resolutions in the light of their reports.  All  organs
  of state, public organizations  and  citizens  concerned  are  obliged  to
  furnish necessary information to  the  committees  of  inquiry  when  they
  conduct investigations.
  Article 72
  Deputies to the National People's Congress and  members  of  its  Standing
  Committee have the right, in accordance with procedures prescribed by law,
  to submit bills and proposals within the scope of the respective functions
  and powers of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee.
  Article 73
  Deputies to the National People's Congress and  members  of  the  Standing
  Committee have the right, during the sessions  of  the  Congress  and  the
  meetings of the  Committee,  to  address  questions,  in  accordance  with
  procedures prescribed by law, to the State Council or the  ministries  and
  commissions under the State Council, which must answer the questions in  a
  responsible manner.
  Article 74
  No deputy to the National People's Congress may be arrested or  placed  on
  criminal trial without the consent of the Presidium of the current session
  of the National People's Congress or, when the National People's  Congress
  is not in session, without the consent of its Standing Committee.
  Article 75
  Deputies to the National People's Congress may not be held legally  liable
  for their speeches or votes at its meetings.
  Article 76
  Deputies to the National People's Congress must play an exemplary role  in
  abiding by the Constitution and the law and keeping state secrets and,  in
  public activities, production and other work, assist in the enforcement of
  the Constitution and the law.  Deputies to the National People's  Congress
  should maintain close contact with the units which elected them  and  with
  the people, heed and convey the opinions and demands  of  the  people  and
  work hard to serve them.
  Article 77
  Deputies to the National People's Congress are subject to  supervision  by
  the units which elected them. The electoral units have the power,  through
  procedures prescribed by law, to recall deputies they elected.
  Article 78
  The organization and working procedures of the National People's  Congress
  and its Standing Committee are prescribed by law.
  Section  2   The   President   of   the   People's   Republic   of   China
  Article 79
  The President and Vice-President of the People's  Republic  of  China  are
  elected by the National People's Congress.
  Citizens of the People's Republic of China who have the right to vote  and
  to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible  for
  election as President or Vice-President of the People's Republic of China.
  The term of office of the President and  Vice-President  of  the  People's
  Republic of China is the same as that of the National  People's  Congress,
  and they shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
  Article 80
  The President of the People's Republic  of  China,  in  pursuance  of  the
  decisions of the National People's Congress and  its  Standing  Committee,
  promulgates statutes, appoints  or  removes  the  Premier,  Vice-Premiers,
  State Councillors, Ministers in charge of ministries or  commissions,  the
  Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the  State  Council;  confers
  state medals and titles of honour; issues orders of special pardons;
  proclaims martial law; proclaims a state of war; and  issues  mobilization
  orders.
  Article 81
  The  President  of  the  People's  Republic  of  China  receives   foreign
  diplomatic representatives on behalf of the  People's  Republic  of  China
  and, in pursuance of the  decisions  of  the  Standing  Committee  of  the
  National  People's   Congress,   appoints   or   recalls   plenipotentiary
  representatives abroad, and ratifies or abrogates treaties  and  important
  agreements concluded with foreign states.
  Article 82
  The Vice-President of the People's Republic of China assists the President
  in his work.  The Vice-President of the People's  Republic  of  China  may
  exercise such functions and powers of the President as the  President  may
  entrust to him.
  Article 83
  The President  and  Vice-President  of  the  People's  Republic  of  China
  exercise their functions and powers until  the  new  President  and  Vice-
  President elected by the  succeeding  National  People's  Congress  assume
  office.
  Article 84
  In the event that the office of the President of the People's Republic  of
  China falls vacant, the Vice-President  succeeds  to  the  office  of  the
  President.
  In the event that  the  office  of  the  Vice-President  of  the  People's
  Republic of China falls vacant, the National People's Congress shall elect
  a new Vice-President to fill the vacancy. In the event that the office  of
  both the President and the Vice-President  of  the  People's  Republic  of
  China fall vacant, the  National  People's  Congress  shall  elect  a  new
  President and a new Vice-President. Prior to such election,  the  Chairman
  of  the  Standing  Committee  of  the  National  People's  Congress  shall
  temporarily act as the President of the People's Republic of China.
  Section 3 The State Council
  Article 85
  The State Council, that  is,  the  Central  People's  Government,  of  the
  People's Republic of China is the executive body of the highest  organ  of
  state power; it is the highest organ of state administration.
  Article 86
  The State Council is composed of the following:
  the Premier;
  the Vice-Premiers;
  the State Councillors;
  the Ministers in charge of ministries;
  the Ministers in charge of commissions;
  the Auditor-General; and
  the Secretary-General.
  The Premier assumes overall responsibility  for  the  work  of  the  State
  Council. The Ministers assume overall responsibility for the work  of  the
  ministries and commissions.  The organization  of  the  State  Council  is
  prescribed by law.
  Article 87
  The term of office of the State  Council  is  the  same  as  that  of  the
  National People's Congress.
  The Premier, Vice-Premiers and State Councillors shall serve no more  than
  two consecutive terms.
  Article 88
  The Premier directs the work of the State Council. The  Vice-Premiers  and
  State Councillors assist the Premier in his work.
  Executive meetings of the State Council are to be attended by the Premier,
  the Vice-Premiers, the State Councillors and the Secretary-General of  the
  State Council.  The Premier  convenes  and  presides  over  the  executive
  meetings and plenary meetings of the State Council.

  Article 89
  The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
  (1) to adopt  administrative  measures,  enact  administrative  rules  and
  regulations  and  issue  decisions  and  orders  in  accordance  with  the
  Constitution and the law;
  (2) to submit proposals to the National People's Congress or its  Standing
  Committee;
  (3) to formulate the tasks and  responsibilities  of  the  ministries  and
  commissions of the State Council, to exercise unified leadership over  the
  work  of  the  ministries  and  commissions  and  to  direct   all   other
  administrative work of a national character that does not fall within  the
  jurisdiction of the ministries and commissions;
  (4) to exercise unified leadership over the work of local organs of  state
  administration at various levels throughout the country, and to  formulate
  the  detailed  division  of  functions  and  powers  between  the  Central
  Government and the organs of state administration of provinces, autonomous
  regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government;
  (5) to draw up and implement the plan for  national  economic  and  social
  development and the state budget;
  (6) to  direct  and  administer  economic  affairs  and  urban  and  rural
  development;
  (7) to direct and administer the affairs of education,  science,  culture,
  public health, physical culture and family planning;
  (8) to direct and administer  civil  affairs,  public  security,  judicial
  administration, supervision and other related matters;
  (9) to conduct foreign affairs and conclude treaties and  agreements  with
  foreign states;
  (10) to direct and administer the building of national defence;
  (11) to direct and administer affairs concerning the nationalities and  to
  safeguard the equal rights of minority  nationalities  and  the  right  to
  autonomy of the national autonomous areas;
  (12) to protect the legitimate rights and interests of  Chinese  nationals
  residing abroad and protect the lawful rights and  interests  of  returned
  overseas Chinese and of the family members of Chinese  nationals  residing
  abroad;
  (13) to alter or annul inappropriate orders,  directives  and  regulations
  issued by the ministries or commissions;
  (14) to alter or annul inappropriate decisions and orders issued by  local
  organs of state administration at various levels;
  (15) to approve the geographic division of provinces,  autonomous  regions
  and municipalities directly under the Central Government, and  to  approve
  the establishment  and  geographic  division  of  autonomous  prefectures,
  counties, autonomous counties, and cities;
  (16) to decide on the imposition of martial law  in  parts  of  provinces,
  autonomous  regions,  and  municipalities  directly  under   the   Central
  Government;
  (17) to examine and decide on the size of administrative  organs  and,  in
  accordance with the law, to appoint or  remove  administrative  officials,
  train them, appraise their performance and reward or punish them; and
  (18) to exercise such other functions and powers as the National  People's
  Congress or its Standing Committee may assign to it.
  Article 90
  Ministers in charge of the ministries or commissions of the State  Council
  are responsible for the work of  their  respective  departments  and  they
  convene and preside over ministerial meetings  or  general  and  executive
  meetings of the commissions to discuss and decide on major issues  in  the
  work of their respective  departments.   The  ministries  and  commissions
  issue orders, directives and regulations within the jurisdiction of  their
  respective  departments  and  in  accordance  with   the   law   and   the
  administrative rules and regulations, decisions and orders issued  by  the
  State Council
  Article 91
  The State Council  establishes  an  auditing  body  to  supervise  through
  auditing the revenue and expenditure of all departments  under  the  State
  Council and of the local governments at various levels,  and  the  revenue
  and expenditure of all financial and monetary  organizations,  enterprises
  and institutions of the state.
  Under the direction of the Premier of the State Council, the auditing body
  independently exercises its  power  of  supervision  through  auditing  in
  accordance  with  the  law,  subject  to  no  interference  by  any  other
  administrative organ or any public organization or individual.
  Article 92
  The State Council is responsible and reports on its work to  the  National
  People's Congress or, when  the  National  People's  Congress  is  not  in
  session, to its Standing Committee.
  Section 4 The Central Military Commission
  Article 93
  The Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China  directs
  the armed forces of the country.
  The Central Military Commission is composed of the following:
  the Chairman;
  the Vice-Chairmen; and
  the members.
  The Chairman assumes overall responsibility for the work  of  the  Central
  Military Commission.
  The term of office of the Central Military Commission is the same as  that
  of the National People's Congress.
  Article 94
  The Chairman of the Central Military  Commission  is  responsible  to  the
  National People's Congress and its Standing Committee.
  Section 5 The Local People's Congresses and Local People's Governments  at
  Various Levels
  Article 95
  People's congresses and people's governments are established in provinces,
  municipalities directly under the Central  Government,  counties,  cities,
  municipal districts, townships, nationality townships, and towns.
  The  organization  of  local  people's  congresses  and   local   people's
  governments at various levels is prescribed by law.
  Organs  of  self-government  are  established   in   autonomous   regions,
  autonomous prefectures  and  autonomous  counties.  The  organization  and
  working procedures of organs of self-government are prescribed by  law  in
  accordance with the basic principles laid down in Sections 5 and 6 of

  Chapter III of the Constitution.

  Article 96
  Local people's congresses at various levels  are  local  organs  of  state
  power.  Local people's congresses at and above the county level  establish
  standing committees.
  Article 97
  Deputies to the people's congresses of provinces, municipalities  directly
  under the Central Government and cities divided into districts are elected
  by the people's congresses at  the  next  lower  level;  deputies  to  the
  people's congresses  of  counties,  cities  not  divided  into  districts,
  municipal districts,  townships,  nationality  townships,  and  towns  are
  elected directly by their constituencies.
  The number of deputies to local people's congresses at various levels  and
  the manner of their election are prescribed by law.
  Article 98
  The term of office of the people's congresses of provinces, municipalities
  directly under the Central Government and cities divided into districts is
  five years. The term of office of the  people's  congresses  of  counties,
  cities  not  divided  into  districts,  municipal  districts,   townships,
  nationality townships, and towns is three years.
  Article 99
  Local people's congresses at various  levels  ensure  the  observance  and
  implementation of the Constitution and  the  law  and  the  administrative
  rules and regulations in their respective administrative areas. Within the
  limits of their authority as prescribed  by  law,  they  adopt  and  issue
  resolutions and examine  and  decide  on  plans  for  local  economic  and
  cultural development and for the development of  public  services.   Local
  people's congresses at and  above  the  county  level  shall  examine  and
  approve the plans for economic and social development and the  budgets  of
  their respective administrative areas and examine and approve the  reports
  on  their  implementation.  They  have  the  power  to  alter   or   annul
  inappropriate decisions of their own  standing  committees.  The  people's
  congresses of nationality  townships  may,  within  the  limits  of  their
  authority as prescribed by law,  take  specific  measures  suited  to  the
  characteristics of the nationalities concerned.
  Article 100
  The people's congresses of provinces and municipalities directly under the
  Central  Government  and  their  standing  committees  may   adopt   local
  regulations, which must not contravene the Constitution and  the  law  and
  administrative rules and regulations, and they  shall  report  such  local
  regulations to the Standing Committee of the  National  People's  Congress
  for the record.
  Article 101
  Local people's congresses at their respective levels elect  and  have  the
  power to recall governors and  deputy  governors,  or  mayors  and  deputy
  mayors, or heads and deputy heads of counties,  districts,  townships  and
  towns.
  Local people's congresses at and above the county level  elect,  and  have
  the power to recall, presidents of people's courts and  chief  procurators
  of people's procuratorates at the corresponding  level.  The  election  or
  recall of chief procurators of people's procuratorates shall  be  reported
  to the chief procurators of the people's procuratorates at the next higher
  level for submission to the standing committees of the people's congresses
  at the corresponding level for approval.
  Article 102
  Deputies to the people's congresses of provinces, municipalities  directly
  under the Central Government and cities divided into districts are subject
  to supervision by the units which elected them; deputies to  the  people's
  congresses of counties,  cities  not  divided  into  districts,  municipal
  districts, townships, nationality townships,  and  towns  are  subject  to
  supervision by their constituencies.
  The electoral units and  constituencies  which  elect  deputies  to  local
  people's congresses at  various  levels  have  the  power  to  recall  the
  deputies according to procedures prescribed by law.
  Article 103
  The standing committee of a local  people's  congress  at  and  above  the
  county level is composed of a chairman, vice-chairmen and members, and  is
  responsible and reports on its  work  to  the  people's  congress  at  the
  corresponding level.
  A local people's congress at or above the county level elects, and has the
  power to recall, members of its standing committee.
  No one on the standing committee of a local people's congress at or  above
  the county level shall hold office in state administrative,  judicial  and
  procuratorial organs.
  Article 104
  The standing committee of a local people's congress at or above the county
  level discusses and decides on major issues in all fields of work  in  its
  administrative area; supervises  the  work  of  the  people's  government,
  people's court and people's procuratorate at the corresponding level;
  annuls inappropriate decisions and orders of the  people's  government  at
  the corresponding level; annuls inappropriate resolutions of the  people's
  congress at the next lower level; decides on the appointment or removal of
  functionaries of state organs  within  the  limits  of  its  authority  as
  prescribed by law; and, when the people's congress  at  the  corresponding
  level is not in session,  recalls  individual  deputies  to  the  people's
  congress at the next higher level and elects individual deputies  to  fill
  vacancies in that people's congress.
  Article 105
  Local people's governments at various levels are the executive  bodies  of
  local organs of  state  power  as  well  as  the  local  organs  of  state
  administration at the corresponding levels.
  Governors, mayors and heads of counties, districts,  townships  and  towns
  assume overall responsibility for local people's  governments  at  various
  levels.
  Article 106
  The term of office of local people's governments at various levels is  the
  same as that of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels.
  Article 107
  Local people's governments at and  above  the  county  level,  within  the
  limits of their authority as prescribed  by  law,  conduct  administrative
  work concerning the economy, education, science, culture,  public  health,
  physical culture, urban and rural  development,  finance,  civil  affairs,
  public   security,   nationalities   affairs,   judicial   administration,
  supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas;
  issue   decisions   and   orders;   appoint   or   remove   administrative
  functionaries, train them, appraise their performance and reward or punish
  them.
  People's  governments  of  townships,  nationality  townships,  and  towns
  execute the resolutions of the people's congresses  at  the  corresponding
  levels as well as the decisions and orders  of  the  state  administrative
  organs at the next higher level and conduct administrative work  in  their
  respective administrative areas.  People's governments  of  provinces  and
  municipalities  directly  under  the  Central  Government  decide  on  the
  establishment and geographic division of townships, nationality townships,
  and towns.
  Article 108
  Local people's governments at and above the county level direct  the  work
  of their subordinate departments and  of  people's  governments  at  lower
  levels, and have the power to alter or annul  inappropriate  decisions  of
  their subordinate departments and of the  people's  governments  at  lower
  levels.
  Article 109
  Auditing bodies are established by local people's governments at and above
  the county level. Local auditing bodies at  various  levels  independently
  exercise their power of supervision through auditing  in  accordance  with
  the  law  and  are  responsible  to  the  people's   government   at   the
  corresponding level and to the auditing body at the next higher level.
  Article 110
  Local people's governments at various levels are responsible and report on
  their work to people's  congresses  at  the  corresponding  levels.  Local
  people's governments at and above the county  level  are  responsible  and
  report on their work to the standing committees of the people's congresses
  at the corresponding levels when the congresses are not in session.
  Local people's governments at various levels are responsible and report on
  their work to the state administrative organs at the next higher level.
  Local people's governments at various levels throughout  the  country  are
  state administrative organs under the  unified  leadership  of  the  State
  Council and are subordinate to it.
  Article 111
  The residents committees and villagers committees established among  urban
  and rural residents on the basis of their  place  of  residence  are  mass
  organizations of self-management at the grass-roots level.  The  chairman,
  vice-chairmen and members of each residents  or  villagers  committee  are
  elected by the residents.  The  relationship  between  the  residents  and
  villagers  committees  and  the  grass-roots  organs  of  state  power  is
  prescribed by law.
  The  residents  and  villagers  committees  establish  sub-committees  for
  people's mediation, public security, public health and  other  matters  in
  order to manage public affairs and social services in their areas, mediate
  civil disputes, help maintain public order and convey  residents  opinions
  and demands and make suggestions to the people's government.
  Section 6 The Organs  of  Self-Government  of  National  Autonomous  Areas
  Article 112
  The organs  of  self-government  of  national  autonomous  areas  are  the
  people's  congresses  and  people's  governments  of  autonomous  regions,
  autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties.
  Article 113
  In the people's congress of an autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or
  autonomous  county,  in  addition  to  the  deputies  of  the  nationality
  exercising  regional  autonomy  in  the  administrative  area,  the  other
  nationalities  inhabiting  the  area  are  also  entitled  to  appropriate
  representation.
  Among the chairman and vice-chairmen of  the  standing  committee  of  the
  people's congress  of  an  autonomous  region,  autonomous  prefecture  or
  autonomous county there shall be one or more citizens of  the  nationality
  or nationalities exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned.
  Article 114
  The chairman of  an  autonomous  region,  the  prefect  of  an  autonomous
  prefecture or the head of an autonomous county shall be a citizen  of  the
  nationality exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned.
  Article 115
  The  organs  of  self-government   of   autonomous   regions,   autonomous
  prefectures and autonomous counties exercise the functions and  powers  of
  local organs of state as specified in Section 5  of  Chapter  III  of  the
  Constitution. At the same time, they exercise the power of autonomy within
  the limits of their authority as prescribed by the Constitution,  the  Law
  of the People's Republic of China on Regional National Autonomy and  other
  laws and implement the laws and policies of the state in the light of  the
  existing local situation.
  Article 116
  The people's congresses of national autonomous areas  have  the  power  to
  enact  regulations  on  the  exercise  of  autonomy  and  other   separate
  regulations  in  the  light  of  the  political,  economic  and   cultural
  characteristics  of  the  nationality  or  nationalities  in   the   areas
  concerned. The regulations on the exercise of autonomy and other  separate
  regulations of autonomous regions  shall  be  submitted  to  the  Standing
  Committee of the National People's Congress for approval  before  they  go
  into effect.  Those  of  autonomous  prefectures  and  counties  shall  be
  submitted  to  the  standing  committee  of  the  people's  congresses  of
  provinces or autonomous regions for approval before they go  into  effect,
  and they shall be reported to  the  Standing  Committee  of  the  National
  People's Congress for the record.
  Article 117
  The organs of self-government of the national autonomous  areas  have  the
  power of autonomy in  administering  the  finances  of  their  areas.  All
  revenues accruing to the national autonomous  areas  under  the  financial
  system of the state shall be managed and  used  by  the  organs  of  self-
  government of those areas on their own.
  Article 118
  The  organs  of  self-government  of   the   national   autonomous   areas
  independently arrange for and administer local economic development  under
  the guidance of state plans. In exploiting natural resources and  building
  enterprises in the national autonomous areas, the  state  shall  give  due
  consideration to the interests of those areas.
  Article 119
  The  organs  of  self-government  of   the   national   autonomous   areas
  independently administer educational, scientific, cultural, public  health
  and physical culture affairs in their respective areas, protect  and  sift
  through the cultural heritage of the nationalities and work for a vigorous
  development of their cultures.
  Article 120
  The organs of self-government of the national  autonomous  areas  may,  in
  accordance with the military system of the state and practical local needs
  and with the approval of the State Council, organize local public security
  forces for the maintenance of public order.
  Article 121
  In performing their  functions,  the  organs  of  self-government  of  the
  national autonomous areas, in  accordance  with  the  regulations  on  the
  exercise of autonomy  in  those  areas,  employ  the  spoken  and  written
  language or languages in common use in the locality.
  Article 122
  The state provides financial, material and  technical  assistance  to  the
  minority  nationalities  to  accelerate  their   economic   and   cultural
  development.
  The state helps the national  autonomous  areas  train  large  numbers  of
  cadres at various levels and specialized personnel and skilled workers  of
  various professions and trades from among the nationality or nationalities
  in those areas.
  Section  7  The  People's   Courts   and   the   People's   Procuratorates
  Article 123
  The people's courts of the People's Republic of  China  are  the  judicial
  organs of the state.
  Article 124
  The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's Court  and
  the people's courts at various local levels,  military  courts  and  other
  special people's courts.  The term of  office  of  the  President  of  the
  Supreme People's Court is the  same  as  that  of  the  National  People's
  Congress. The President shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
  The organization of the people's courts is prescribed by law.
  Article 125
  Except in special circumstances as specified by  law,  all  cases  in  the
  people's courts are heard in public. The accused has the right to defence.
  Article 126
  The people's courts exercise judicial power independently,  in  accordance
  with the provisions of the law, and are not subject to interference by any
  administrative organ, public organization or individual.
  Article 127
  The Supreme People's Court is the highest judicial organ.
  The Supreme People's Court supervises the administration of justice by the
  people's courts at various  local  levels  and  by  the  special  people's
  courts. People's courts at higher levels supervise the  administration  of
  justice by those at lower levels.
  Article 128
  The Supreme  People's  Court  is  responsible  to  the  National  People's
  Congress and its Standing Committee.  Local  people's  courts  at  various
  levels are responsible to the organs of state power which created them.
  Article 129
  The people's procuratorates of the People's Republic of  China  are  state
  organs for legal supervision.
  Article 130
  The  People's  Republic  of  China  establishes   the   Supreme   People's
  Procuratorate and the people's procuratorates  at  various  local  levels,
  military procuratorates and other special people's procuratorates.
  The term of office of  the  Procurator-General  of  the  Supreme  People's
  Procuratorate is the same as that of the National People's  Congress;  the
  Procurator-General shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
  The organization of the people's procuratorates is prescribed by law.
  Article 131
  The people's procuratorates exercise procuratorial power independently, in
  accordance with the  provisions  of  the  law,  and  are  not  subject  to
  interference  by  any  administrative  organ,   public   organization   or
  individual.
  Article 132
  The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest procuratorial organ.
  The Supreme People's  Procuratorate  directs  the  work  of  the  people's
  procuratorates at  various  local  levels  and  of  the  special  people's
  procuratorates. People's procuratorates at higher levels direct  the  work
  of those at lower levels.
  Article 133
  The Supreme People's Procuratorate is responsible to the National People's
  Congress and its Standing Committee. People's  procuratorates  at  various
  local levels are responsible to the organs of state  power  which  created
  them and to the people's procuratorates at higher levels.
  Article 134
  Citizens of all China's nationalities have the right to use  their  native
  spoken and written languages in court proceedings. The people's courts and
  people's procuratorates should provide translation for any  party  to  the
  court proceedings who is not familiar with the spoken or written languages
  commonly used in the locality.
  In an area where people of a minority nationality live in  a  concentrated
  community or where a number of nationalities live together, court hearings
  should be conducted in the language or  languages  commonly  used  in  the
  locality; indictments, judgments, notices and other  documents  should  be
  written, according to actual needs, in the language or languages  commonly
  used in the locality.
  Article 135
  The people's courts, the people's procuratorates and the  public  security
  organs shall, in handling criminal cases,  divide  their  functions,  each
  taking responsibility for its own work, and they  shall  coordinate  their
  efforts  and  check  each  other  to  ensure  the  correct  and  effective
  enforcement of the law.

  Chapter IV The National Flag, the National Emblem and the Capital

      Article 136 The national flag of the People's Republic of China is a red flag with       five   stars.  
      Article 137 The national emblem of the People's Republic of China consists of an image        of Tian'anmen in its centre illuminated by five stars and encircled by ears of grain      and  a cogwheel.  
        Article 138 The capital of the People's Republic of China is Beijing.

 

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