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Home Living in China Chinese Law Contract Law of the People's Republic of China
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China
Chinese Law
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国合同法

 

GENERAL PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 2 CONCLUSION OF CONTRACTS

CHAPTER 3 EFFECTIVENESS OF CONTRACTS

CHAPTER 4 PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACTS

CHAPTER 5 MODIFICATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF CONTRACTS

CHAPTER 6 TERMINATION OF THE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTS CHAPTER 7 LIABILITY FOR BREACH OF CONTRACTS

CHAPTER 8 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

SPECIFIC PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 9 CONTRACTS FOR SALES

CHAPTER 10 CONTRACTS FOR SUPPLY AND USE OF ELECTRICITY, WATER, GAS OR HEATING

CHAPTER 11 CONTRACTS FOR DONATION

CHAPTER 12 CONTRACTS FOR LOANS

CHAPTER 13 CONTRACTS FOR LEASE

CHAPTER 14 CONTRACTS FOR FINANCIAL LEASE

CHAPTER 15 CONTRACTS FOR WORK

CHAPTER 16 CONTRACTS FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

CHAPTER 17 CONTRACTS FOR TRANSPORTATION

SECTION 1 GENERAL RULES

SECTION 2 CONTRACTS FOR PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

SECTION 3 CONTRACTS FOR GOODS TRANSPORTATION

SECTION 4 CONTRACTS FOR MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION

CHAPTER 18 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNOLOGY

SECTION 1 GENERAL RULES

SECTION 2 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

SECTION 3 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

SECTION 4 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNICAL CONSULTANCY AND TECHNICAL SERVICE CHAPTER 19 CONTRACTS FOR STORAGE

CHAPTER 20 CONTRACTS FOR WAREHOUSING

CHAPTER 21 CONTRACTS FOR COMMISSION

CHAPTER 22 CONTRACTS FOR BROKERAGE

CHAPTER 23 CONTRACTS FOR INTERMEDIATION

SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

Article 1 This Law is formulated with a view to protecting the lawful rights and interests of the parties to contracts, maintaining the social economic order and promoting the progress of the socialist modernization drive.

Article 2 A contract in this Law refers to an agreement establishing, modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footing, that is, between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations.Agreements involving personal status relationship such as on matrimony, adoption, guardianship, etc. shall apply the provisions of other Laws.

Article 3 The parties to a contract shall have equal legal status. No party may impose its will on the other party.

Article 4 The parties shall have the rights to be voluntary to enter into a contract in accordance with the law. No unit or individual may illegally interfere.

Article 5 The parties shall abide by the principle of fairness in defining the rights and obligations of each party.

Article 6 The parties must act in accordance with the principle of good faith, no matter in exercising rights or in performing obligations.

Article 7 In concluding and performing a contract, the parties shall abide by the laws and administrative regulations, observe social ethics. Neither party may disrupt the socio-economic order or damage the public interests.

Article 8 As soon as a contract is established in accordance with the law, it shall be legally binding on the parties. The parties shall perform their respective obligations in accordance with the terms of the contract. Neither party may unilaterally modify or rescind the contract.The contract established according to law shall be under the protection of law.


CHAPTER 2 CONCLUSION OF CONTRACTS

Article 9 In concluding a contract, the parties shall have appropriate civil capacity of right and civil capacity of conduct.

The parties may conclude a contract through an agent in accordance with the law.

Article 10 The parties may conclude a contract in written, oral or other forms.

Where the laws or administrative regulations require a contract to be concluded in written form, the contract shall be in written form. If the parties agree to do so, the contract shall be concluded in written form.

Article 11 The written forms mean the forms which can show the described contents visibly, such as a written contractual agreement, letters, and data-telex (including telegram, telex, fax, EDI and e-mails).

Article 12 The contents of a contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall contain the following clauses in general:
(1) title or name and domicile of the parties;

(2) contract object;

(3) quantity;

(4) quality;

(5) price or remuneration;

(6) time limit, place and method of performance;

(7) liability for breach of contract; and

(8) methods to settle disputes.

The parties may conclude a contract by reference to the model text of each kind of contract.

Article 13 The parties shall conclude a contract in the form of an offer and acceptance.

Article 14 An offer is a proposal hoping to enter into a contract with other parties. The proposal shall comply with the following stipulations:

(1) Its contents shall be detailed and definite;

(2) It indicates the proposal of the offeror to be bound in case of acceptance.

Article 15 An invitation for offer is a proposal for requesting other parties to make offers to the principal. Price forms mailed, public notices of auction and tender, prospectuses and commercial advertisements, etc. are invitations for offer.

Where the contents of a commercial advertisement comply with the terms of the offer, it may be regarded as an offer.

Article 16 An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree.

If a contract is concluded by means of data-telex, and a recipient appoints a specific system to receive the data-telex, the time when the data-telex enters the system shall be the time of arrival; if no specific system is appointed, the time when the data-telex first enters any of the recipient's systems shall be regarded as the time of arrival.

Article 17 An offer may be withdrawn, if the withdrawal notice reaches the offeree before or at the same time when the offer arrives.

Article 18 An offer may be revoked, if the revocation reaches the offeree before it has dispatched an acceptance.

Article 19 An offer may not be revoked, if

(1) the offeror indicates a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise explicitly states that the offer is irrevocable; or

(2) the offeree has reasons to rely on the offer as being irrevocable and has made preparation for performing the contract.

Article 20 An offer shall be null and void under any of the following circumstances:

(1) The notice of rejection reaches the offeror;

(2) The offeror revokes its offer in accordance with the law;

(3) The offeree fails to make an acceptance at the time when the time limit for acceptance expires;

(4) The offeree substantially alters the contents of the offer.

Article 21 An acceptance is a statement made by the offeree indicating assent to an offer.

Article 22 Except that it is based on transaction practices or that the offer indicates an acceptance may be made by performing an act, the acceptance shall be made by means of notice.

Article 23 An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the time limit fixed in the offer.

Where no time limit is fixed in the offer, the acceptance shall arrive in accordance with the following provisions:

(1) If the offer is made in dialogues, the acceptance shall be made immediately except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties;

(2) If the offer is made in forms other than a dialogue, the acceptance shall arrive within a reasonable period of time.

Article 24 Where the offer is made in a letter or a telegram, the time limit for acceptance commences from the date shown in the letter or from the moment the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If no such date is shown in the letter, it commences from the date shown on the envelope. Where an offer is made by means of instantaneous communication, such as telephone or facsimile, the time limit for acceptance commences from the moment that the offer reaches the offeree.

Article 25 A contract is established when the acceptance becomes effective.

Article 26 An acceptance becomes effective when its notice reaches the offeror. If an acceptance needn't be notified, it becomes effective when an act of acceptance is performed in accordance with transaction practices or as required in the offer.

Where a contract is concluded in the form of data-telex, the time when an acceptance arrives shall apply the provisions of Paragraph 2, Article 16 of this Law.

Article 27 An acceptance may be withdrawn, but a notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeror before the notice of acceptance reaches the offeror or at the same time when the acceptance reaches the offeror.

Article 28 Where an offeree makes an acceptance beyond the time limit for acceptance, the acceptance shall be a new offer except that the offeror informs the offeree of the effectiveness of the said acceptance promptly.

Article 29 If the offeree dispatches the acceptance within the time limit for acceptance which can reach the offeror in due time under normal circumstances, but the acceptance reaches the offeror beyond the time limit because of other reasons, the acceptance shall be effective, except that, the offeror informs the offeree promptly that it does not accept the acceptance because it exceeds the time limit for acceptance.

Article 30 The contents of an acceptance shall comply with those of the offer. If the offeree substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall constitute a new offer. The modification relating to the contract object, quality, quantity, price or remuneration, time or place or method of performance, liabilities for breach of contract and the settlement of disputes, etc., shall constitute the substantial modification of an offer.

Article 31 If the acceptance does not substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall be effective, and the contents of the contract shall be subject to those of the acceptance, except as rejected promptly by the offeror or indicated in the offer that an acceptance may not modify the offer at all.

Article 32 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the contract is established when both parties sign or affix a seal on it.

Article 33 Where the parties conclude the contract in the form of a letter or data-telex, etc., one party may request to sign a letter of confirmation before the conclusion of the contract. The contract shall be established at the time when the letter of confirmation is signed.

Article 34 The place of effectiveness of an acceptance shall be the place of the establishment of the contract.If the contract is concluded in the form of data-telex, the main business place of the receipient shall be the place of establishment. If no main business place, its habitual residence shall be considered to be the place of establishment. Where the parties agree otherwise, the place of establishment shall be subject to that agreement.

Article 35 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the place where both parties sign or affix a seal shall be the place where the contract is established.

Article 36 A contract, which shall be concluded in written form as provided for by the laws and administrative regulations or as agreed upon by the parties, shall be established, as the parties do not use the written form, but one party has performed the principal obligation and the other party has received it.

Article 37 A contract, which is concluded in written form, shall be eslablished, if one party has performed its principal obligation and the other party has received it before signiture or affixing with a seal.

Article 38 In case the State issues a mandatory plan or a State purchasing order task based on necessity, the relevant legal persons or other organizations shall conclude contracts between them in accordance with the rights and obligations as stipulated by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.

Article 39 Where standard terms are adopted in concluding a contract, the party which supplies the standard terms shall define the rights and obligations between the parties abiding by the principle of fairness, request the other party to note the exclusion or restriction of its liabilities in reasonable ways, and explain the standard terms according to the requirement of the other party.Standard terms are clauses which are prepared in advance for general and repeated use by one party and which are not negotiatied with the other party in concluding a contract.

Article 40 When standard terms are under the circumstances stipulated in Article 52 and Article 53 of this Law, or the party which supplies the standard terms exempts itself from its liabilities, weights the liabilities of the other party, and excludes the rights of the other party, the terms shall be null and void.

Article 41 If a dispute over the understanding of the standard terms occurs, it shall be interpreted according to general understanding. Where there are two or more kinds of interpretation, an interpretation unfavourable to the party supplying the standard terms shall be preferred. Where the standard terms are inconsistent with non-standard terms, the latter shall be adopted.

Article 42 The party shall be liable for damages if it is under one of the following circumstances in concluding a contract and thus causing losses to the other party:

(1) disguising and pretending to conclude a contract, and negotiating in bad faith;

(2) concealing deliberately the important facts relating to the conclusion of the contract or providing deliberately false information;

(3) performing other acts which violate the principle of good faith.

Article 43 A business secret the parties learn in concluding a contract shall not be disclosed or unfairly used, no matter the contract is established or not. The party who causes the other party to suffer from losses due to disclosing or unfairly using the business secret shall be liable for damages.


CHAPTER 3 EFFECTIVENESS OF CONTRACTS


Article 44 The contract established according to law becomes effective when it is established.
With regard to contracts which are subject to approval or registration as provided for by the laws or administrative regulations, the provisions thereof shall be followed.

Article 45 The parties may agree on some collateral conditions relating to the effectiveness of a contract. The contract with entry-into-force conditions shall be effective when such conditions are accomplished. The contract with dissolving conditions shall be null and void when such conditions are accomplished.
To unfairly prevent the conditions from being accomplished by one party for its own interests shall be regarded as those conditions have been accomplished. To unfairly promoting the accomplishment of such conditions by one party shall be regarded as non-accomplishment.

Article 46 The parties may agree on a conditional time period as to the effectiveness of the contract. A contract subject to an effective time period shall come into force when the period expires. A contract with termination time period shall become invalid when the period expires.

Article 47 A contract concluded by a person with limited civil capacity of conduct shall be effective after being ratified afterwards by the person's statutory agent, but a pure profit-making contract or a contract concluded which is appropriate to the person's age, intelligence or mental health conditions need not be ratified by the person's statutory agent.
The counterpart may urge the statutory agent to ratify the contract within one month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification that the statutory agent does not make any expression. A bona fide counterpart has the right to withdraw it before the contract is ratified. The withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.

Article 48 A contract concluded by an actor who has no power of agency, who oversteps the power of agency, or whose power of agency has expired and yet concludes it on behalf of the principal, shall have no legally binding force on the principal without ratification by the principal, and the actor shall be held liable.
The counterpart may urge the principal to ratify it within one month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification that the principal does not make any expression. A bona fide counterpart has the right to withdraw it before the contract is ratified. The withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.

Article 49 If an actor has no power of agency, oversteps the power of agency, or the power of agency has expired and yet concludes a contract in the principal's name, and the counterpart has reasons to trust that the actor has the power of agency, the act of agency shall be effective.

Article 50 Where a statutory representative or a responsible person of a legal person or other organization oversteps his/her power and concludes a contract, the representative act shall be effective except that the counterpart knows or ought to know that he/she is overstepping his/her powers.

Article 51 Where a person having no right to disposal of property disposes of other persons' properties, and the principal ratifies the act afterwards or the person without power of disposal has obtained the power after concluding a contract, the contract shall be valid.

Article 52 A contract shall be null and void under any of the following circumstances:

(1) A contract is concluded through the use of fraud or coercion by one party to damage the interests of the State;

(2) Malicious collusion is conducted to damage the interests of the State, a collective or a third party;

(3) An illegitimate purpose is concealed under the guise of legitimate acts;

(4) Damaging the public interests;

(5) Violating the compulsory provisions of the laws and administrative regulations.

Article 53 The following immunity clauses in a contract shall be null and void:

(1) those that cause personal injury to the other party;

(2) those that cause property damages to the other party as a result of deliberate intent or gross fault.

Article 54 A party shall have the right to request the people's court or an arbitration institution to modify or revoke the following contracts:

(1) those concluded as a result of serious misunderstanding;

(2) those that are obviously unfair at the time when concluding the contract.

If a contract is concluded by one party against the other party's true intentions through the use of fraud, coercion or exploitation of the other party's unfavorable position, the injured party shall have the right to request the people's court or an arbitration institution to modify or revoke it.
Where a party requests for modification, the people's court or the arbitration institution may not revoke the contract.

Article 55 The right to revoke a contract shall extinguish under any of the following circumstances:

(1) A party having the right to revoke the contract fails to exercise the right within one year from the day that it knows or ought to know the revoking causes;

(2) A party having the right to revoke the contract explicitly expresses or conducts an act to waive the right after it knows the revoking causes.

Article 56 A contract that is null and void or revoked shall have no legally binding force ever from the very beginning. If part of a contract is null and void without affecting the validity of the other parts, the other parts shall still be valid.

Article 57 If a contract is null and void, revoked or terminated, it shall not affect the validity of the dispute settlement clause which is independently existing in the contract.

Article 58 The property acquired as a result of a contract shall be returned after the contract is confirmed to be null and void or has been revoked; where the property can not be returned or the return is unnecessary, it shall be reimbursed at its estimated price. The party at fault shall compensate the other party for losses incurred as a result therefrom. If both parties are at fault, each party shall respectively be liable.

Article 59 If the parties have maliciously conducted collusion to damage the interests of the State, a collective or a third party, the property thus acpuired shall be turned over to the State or returned to the collective or the third party.



CHAPTER 4 PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACTS

Article 60 The parties shall perform their obligations thoroughly according to the terms of the contract.
The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith and perform the obligations of notice, assistance and maintaining confidentiality, etc. based on the character and purpose of the contract or the transaction practices.

Article 61 Where, after the contract becomes effective, there is no agreement in the contract between the parties on the terms regarding quality, price or remuneration and place of performance, etc. or such agreement is unclear, the parties may agree upon supplementary terms through consultation. In case of a failure in doing so, the terms shall be determined from the context of relevant clauses of the contract or by transaction practices.

Article 62 If the relevant terms of a contract are unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the provisions below shall be applied:
(1) If quality requirements are unclear, the State standards or trade standards shall be applied; if there are no State standards or trade standards, generally held standards or specific standards in conformity with the purpose of the contract shall be applied.

(2) If the price or remuneration is unclear, the market price of the place of performance at the time concluding the contract shall be applied; if the government-fixed price or government-directed price shall be followed in accordance with the law, the provisions of the law shall be applied.

(3) If the place of performance is unclear, and the payment is currency, the performance shall be effected at the place of location of the party receiving the payment; if real estate is to be delivered, the performance shall be effected at the place of location of the real estate; in case of other contract objects, the performance shall be effected at the place of location of the party fulfilling the obligations.

(4) If the time limit for performance is unclear, the obligor may at any time fulfill the obligations towards the obligee; the obligee may also demand at any time that the obligor performs the obligations, but a time period for necessary preparation shall be given to the obligor.

(5) If the method of performance is unclear, the method which is advantageous to realize the purpose of the contract shall be adopted.

(6) If the burden of the expenses of performance is unclear, the cost shall be assumed by the obligor.

Article 63 In cases where the government-fixed price or government- directed price is followed in a contract, if the said price is readjusted within the time limit for delivery as stipulated in the contract, the payment shall be calculated according to the price at the time of delivery. If the delivery of the object is delayed and the price has risen, the original price shall be adopted; while the price has dropped, the new price shall be adopted. In the event of delay in taking delivery of the object or late payment, if the price has risen, the new price shall be adopted; while the price has dropped, the original price shall be adopted.

Article 64 Where the parties agree that the obligor performs the obligations to a third party, and the obligor fails to perform the obligations to the third party or the performance does not meet the terms of the contract, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for the breach of contract.

Article 65 Where the parties agree that a third party performs the obligations to the obligee, and the third party fails to perform the obligations or the performance does not meet the terms of the contract, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for the breach of contract.

Article 66 If both parties have obligations towards each other and there is no order of priority in respect of the performance of obligations, the parties shall perform the obligations simultaneously. One party has the right to reject the other party's request for performance before the other party's performance. One party has the right to reject the other party's corresponding request for performance if the other party's performance does not meet the terms of the contract.

Article 67 Where both parties have obligations towards each other and there has been an order of priority in respect of the performance, and the party which shall render its performance first has not rendered the performance, the party which may render its performance lately has the right to reject the other party's request for performance. Where the party which shall render its performance first violates the terms of a contract while fulfilling the obligations, the party which may render its performance lately has the right to reject the other party's corresponding request for performance.

Article 68 One party, which shall render its performance first, may suspend its performance, if it has conclusive evidence that the other party is under any of the following circumstances:

(1) Its business conditions are seriously deteriorating;

(2) It moves away its property and takes out its capital secretly to evade debt;

(3) It loses its commercial credibility;

(4) Other circumstances showing that it loses or is possible to lose the capacity of credit.

Where a party suspends performance of a contract without conclusive evidence, it shall be liable for the breach of contract.

Article 69 One party to a contract which suspends its performance of the contract in accordance with the provisions of Article 68 of this Law, shall promptly inform the other party of such suspension. It shall resume its performance of the contract when the other party provides a sure guarantee. After the suspension of the performance, if the other party does not reinstate its capacity of performance and does not provide with a sure guarantee, the party suspending performance of the contract may rescind the contract.

Article 70 If the obligee does not notify the obligor its separation, merger or a change of its domicile so as to make it difficult for the obligor to perform the obligations, the obligor may suspend the performance of the contract or have the object deposited.

Article 71 The obligee may reject an advance performance of the contract by the obligor, except that the advance performance does not damage the interests of the obligee.
Additional expenses caused to the obligee by advance performance shall be borne by the obligor.

Article 72 The obligee may reject the partial performance of the contract by the obligor, except that the partial performance does not damage the interests of the obligee.
Additional expenses caused to the obligee by partial performance shall be borne by the obligor.

Article 73 If the obligor is indolent in exercising its due creditor's right, thus damaging the interests of the obligee, the obligee may request the people's court for subrogation in its own name, except that the creditor's right exclusively belongs to the obligor.
The subrogation shall be exercised within the scope of the creditor's right of the obligee. The necessary expenses caused to the obligee by exercising subrogation shall be borne by the obligor.

Article 74 If the obligor renounces its due creditor's right or transfers its property gratis, thus damaging the interests of the obligee, the obligee may request the people's court to revoke the obligor's act. If the obligor transfers its property at an obviously unreasonable low price, thus damaging the interests of the obligee, and the transferee knows such situation, the obligee may request the people's court to revoke the obligor's act.
The right of revocation shall be exercised within the scope of the creditor's right of the obligee. The necessary expenses caused to the obligee by exercising the right of revocation shall be borne by the obligor.

Article 75 The time limit for exercising the right of revocation shall be one year, commencing from the day when the obligee is aware or ought to be aware of the causes of revocation. If the right of revocation has not been exercised within five years from the day when the act of the obligor takes place, the right of revocation shall be extinguished.

Article 76 After a contract becomes effective, the parties may not reject to perform the obligations of the contract because of modification of the title or name of the parties, or change of the statutory representative, the responsible person or the executive person of the parties.


CHAPTER 5 MODIFICATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF CONTRACTS

Article 77 A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.
If the laws or administrative regulations stipulate that a contract shall be modified through the procedures of approval or registration, such provisions shall be followed.

Article 78 If the contents of the modified contract agreed by the parties are unclear, it shall be presumed that the contract is not modified.

Article 79 The obligee may assign, wholly or in part, its rights under the contract to a third party, except for the following circumstances:
(1) The rights under the contract may not be assigned according to the character of the contract;

(2) The rights under the contract may not be assigned according to the agreement between the parties;

(3) The rights under the contract may not be assigned according to the provisions of the laws.


Article 80 An obligee assigning its rights shall notify the obligor. Without notifying the obligor, the assignment shall not become effective to the obligor.
The notice of assignment of rights may not be revoked, unless the assignee agrees thereupon.

Article 81 If the obligee assigns its rights, the assignee shall acquire the collateral rights relating to the principal rights, except that the collateral rights exclusively belong to the obligee.

Article 82 After the obligor receives the notice of assignment of the creditor's rights, it may claim its demur in respect of the assignor to the assignee.

Article 83 When the obligor receives the notice of assignment of the creditor's rights, and the obligor has due creditor's rights to the assign or, and the creditor's rights of the obligor are due in priority to the assigned creditor's rights or due at the same time, the obligor may claim to offset each other to the assignee.

Article 84 If the obligor assigns its obligations, wholly or in part, to a third party, it shall obtain consent from the obligee first.

Article 85 If the obligor assigns its obligations to a third party, the new obligor may claim the demur belonging to the original obligor in respect of the obligee.

Article 86 If the obligor assigns its obligations to a third party, the new obligor shall assume the collateral obligations relating to the principal obligations, except that the obligations exclusively belong to the original obligor.

Article 87 Where the laws or administrative regulations stipulate that the assignment of rights or transfer of obligations shall go through approval or registration procedures, such provisions shall be followed.

Article 88 One party to a contract may assign its rights and obligations under the contract together to a third party with the consent of the other party.

Article 89 If one party to a contract assigns its rights and obligations under the contract together to a third party, the provisions of Article 79, Article 81 to 83, and Article 85 to 87 of this Law shall be applied.

Article 90 If one party to a contract is merged after the contract has been concluded, the legal person or other organization established after the merger shall exercise the contract rights and perform the contract obligations. If one party is separated after the contract has been concluded, the legal persons or other organizations thus established after the separation shall exercise the contract rights or assume the contract obligations jointly and severally.


CHAPTER 6 TERMINATION OF THE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTS


Article 91 The rights and obligations of contracts shall be terminated under any of the following circumstances:
(1) The debt obligations have been performed in accordance with the terms of the contract;

(2) The contract has been rescinded;

(3) The debts have been offset against each other;

(4) The obligor has deposited the object according to law;

(5) The debt obligations have been exempted by the obligee;

(6) The creditor's rights and debt obligations are assumed by the same person; or

(7) Other circumstances for termination as stipulated by the laws or agreed upon by the parties in the contract.

Article 92 When the rights and obligations of contracts are terminated, the parties to a contract shall, abiding by the principle of good faith, perform such obligations as making a notice, providing assistance and maintaining confidentiality according to transaction practices.


Article 93 A contract may be rescinded if the parties to the contract reach a consensus through consultation.
The parties to a contract may agree upon the conditions to rescind the contract by one party. When such conditions are accompanised, the party entitled to rescind the contract may rescind it.

Article 94 The parties to a contract may rescind the contract under any of the following circumstances:

(1) The purpose of the contract is not able to be realized because of force majeure;

(2) One party to the contract expresses explicitly or indicates through its acts, before the expiry of the performance period, that it will not perform the principal debt obligations;

(3) One party to the contract delays in performing the principal debt obligations and fails, after being urged, to perform them within a reasonable time period;

(4) One party to the contract delays in performing the debt obligations or commits other acts in breach of the contract so that the purpose of the contract is not able to be realized; or

(5) Other circumstances as stipulated by law.


Article 95 Where the laws stipulate or the parties agree upon the time limit to exercise the right to rescind the contract, and no party exercises it when the time limit expires, the said right shall be extinguished.
Where the law does not stipulate or the parties make no agreement upon the time limit to exercise the right to rescind the contract, and no party exercises it within a reasonable time period after being urged, the said right shall be extinguished.

Article 96 One party to a contract shall make a notice to the other party if it advances to rescind the contract according to the provisions of Paragraph 2, Article 93 and Article 94 of this Law. The contract shall be rescinded upon the arrival of the notice at the other party. The party may, if the other party disagrees therewith, request the people's court or an arbitration institution to confirm the effectiveness of rescinding the contract.
Where the laws or administrative regulations stipulate that the rescinding of a contract shall go through the formalities of approval and registration, the provisions thereof shall be followed.

Article 97 If a contract has not yet been performed, its performance shall be terminated after the rescission. If it has been performed, a party to the contract may, in light of the performance and the character of the contract, request that the original status be restored or other remedial measures be taken.

Article 98 The termination of the rights and obligations of a contract may not affect the force of the settlement and clearance clauses in the contract.

Article 99 Where the parties to a contract have debts due mutually and the category and character of the debts are the same, any party may offset his debt against the other's one, except that the debts may not be offset according to the provisions of the laws or to the character of the contract.
Any party advancing to offset the debts shall make a notice to the other party. Such notice shall be effective upon the arrival at the other party. The offset may not be accompanied by any conditions or time limit.


Article 100 Where the parties to a contract have debts due mutually and the category and character of the debts are different, the debts may be offset against each other if both parties have reached a consensus through consultation.


Article 101 The obligor may deposit the object if the debt obligatcons are difficult to be performed under any of the following circumstances:

(1) The obligee refuses to accept them without justified reasons;

(2) The obligee is missing;

(3) The obligee is deceased and the heir is not yet determined, or the obligee has lost his conduct capacity and the guardian is not yet determined; or

(4) Other circumstances as stipulated by law.If the object is not fit to be deposited or the deposit expenses are excessively high, the obligor may, according to law, auction or sell the object and deposit the money obtained therefrom.

Article 102 After the object is deposited, the obligor shall, except that the obligee is missing, make a notice promptly to the obligee or the obligee's heir or guardian.

Article 103 The risk of damage to and missing of the object after being deposited shall be borne by the obligee. During the period of depositing, the fruits generated by the object shall belong to the obligee. The deposit expenses shall be borne by the obligee.

Article 104 The obligee may claim the deposited object at any time. However, if the obligee is under a debt due to the obligor the deposit authorities shall refuse him to claim the deposited object at the request of the obligor, before the obligee has performed his debt obligations or provides a guaranty.
The right to claim the deposited object by the obligee shall be extinguished if it has not been exercised within 5 years as of the date of deposit. The deposited object shall be owned by the State with deduction of the deposit expenses.

Article 105 If the obligee exempts the obligor from the debt obligations wholly or in part, the whole or part of the rights and obligations of a contract shall be terminated.

Article 106 If the creditor's rights and debt obligations are assumed by the same person, the rights and obligations of a contract shall be terminated, except for those involving the interests of a third party.


CHAPTER 7 LIABILITY FOR BREACH OF CONTRACTS


Article 107 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the contract obligations or its performance fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the party shall bear such liabilities for breach of contract as to continue to perform its obligations, to take remedial measures, or to compensate for losses.


Article 108 Where one party to a contract expresses explicitly or indicates through its acts that it will not perform the contract, the other party may demand it to bear the liability for the breach of contract before the expiray of the performance period.


Article 109 If one party to a contract fails to pay the price or remuneration, the other party may request it to make the payment.


Article 110 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the non- monetary debt or its performance of non-monetary debt fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the other party may request it to perform it except under any of the following circumstances:

(1) It is unable to be performed in law or in fact;

(2) The object of the debt is unfit for compulsory performance or the performance expenses are excessively high; or

(3) The creditor fails to request for the performance within a reasonable time period.


Article 111 If the quality fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the breach of contract damages shall be borne according to the terms of the contract agreed upon by the parties. If there is no agreement in the contract on the liability for breach of contract or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the damaged party may, in light of the character of the object and the degree of losses, reasonably choose to request the other party to bear the liabilities for the breach of contract such as repairing, substituting, reworking, returning the goods, or reducing the price or remuneration.


Article 112 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the contract obligations or its performance fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the party shall, after performing its obligations or taking remedial measures, compensate for the losses, if the other party suffers from other losses.


Article 113 Where one party to a contract fails to perform the contract obligations or its performance fails to satisfy the terms of the contract and causes losses to the other party, the amount of compensation for losses shall be equal to the losses caused by the breach of contract, including the interests receivable after the performance of the contract, provided not exceeding the probable losses caused by the breach of contract which has been foreseen or ought to be foreseen when the party in breach concludes the contract.


The business operator who commits default activities in providing to the consumer any goods or service shall be liable for paying compensation for damages in accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests.


Article 114 The parties to a contract may agree that one party shall, when violating the contract, pay breach of contract damages of a certain amount in light of the breach, or may agree upon the calculating method of compensation for losses resulting from the breach of contract.
If the agreed breach of contract damages are lower than the losses caused, any party may request the people's court or an arbitration institution to increase it; if it is excessively higher than the losses caused, any party may request the people's court or an arbitration institution to make an appropriate reduction.
If the parties to a contract agree upon breach of contract damages in respect to the delay in performance, the party in breach shall perform the debt obligations after paying the breach of contract damages.


Article 115 The parties to a contract may, according to the Guaranty Law of the People's Republic of China, agree that one party pays a deposit to the other party as the guaranty for the creditor's rights. After the debt obligations are performed by the obligor, the deposit shall be returned or offset against the price. If the party that pays the deposit fails to perform the agreed debt obligations, it shall have no right to reclaim the deposit. If the party that receives the deposit fails to perform the agreed debt obligations, it shall return twice the amount of the deposit.


Article 116 Where the parties to a contract agree on both breach of contract damages and a deposit, when one party violates the contract, the other party may choose to apply the breach of contract damages clause or the deposit clause.


Article 117 In case that a contract is not able to be performed because of force majeure, the liabilities shall be exempted in part or wholly in light of the effects of force majeure, except as otherwise stipulated by law. If the force majeure occurs after one party has delayed in performance, the liability may not be exempted.
Force majeure as referred to in this Law means the objective circumstances that are unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.


Article 118 One party to a contract that is not able to perform the contract because of force majeure shall make a notice to the other party promptly so as to reduce the probable losses to the other party and provide evidence within a reasonable time limit.


Article 119 After one party violates a contract, the other party shall take proper measures to prevent from the enlargement of losses; if the other party fails to take proper measures so that the losses are enlarged, it may not claim any compensation as to the enlarged losses.
The reasonable expenses paid by the party to prevent from the enlargement of losses shall be borne by the party in breach.
Article 120 In case that both parties violate a contract, they shall bear the liabilities respectively.


Article 121 One party that violates the contract because of a third party shall be liable for the breach of contract to the other party. The disputes between the said party and the third party shall be settled according to law or their agreement.


Article 122 In case that the breach of contract by one party infringes upon the other party's personal or property rights, the aggrieved party shall be entitled to choose to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for breach of contract according to this Law, or to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for infringement according to other laws.


CHAPTER 8 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS


Article 123 If there are provisions as otherwise stipulated in respect to contracts in other laws, such provisions shall be followed.


Article 124 Any contract which is not addressed explicitly in the Specific Provisions of this Law or in other laws shall apply the provisions of the General Provisions of this Law. The most similar provisions in the Specific Provisions of this Law or in other laws may be applied mutatis mutandis.


Article 125 With regard to disputes between the parties to a contract arising from the understanding of any clause of the contract, the true intention of such clause shall be determined according to the terms and expressions used in the contract, the contents of the relevant clauses of the contract, the purpose for concluding the contract, the transaction practices and the principle of good faith.
Where two or more languages are adopted in the text of a contract and it is agreed that both texts are equally authentic, it shall be presumed that the terms and expressions in various versions have the same meaning. In case that the terms and expressions in different versions are inconsistent, they shall be interpreted according to the purpose of the contract.


Article 126 The parties to a contract involving foreign interests may choose the law applicable to the settlement of their contract disputes, except as otherwise stipulated by law. If the parties to a contract involving foreign interests have not made a choice, the law of the country to which the contract is most closely connected shall be applied.
The contracts for Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, for Chinese- foreign contractual joint ventures and for Chinese-foreign cooperative exploration and development of natural resources to be performed within the territory of the People's Republic of China shall apply the laws of the People's Republic of China.


Article 127 The departments of administration for industry and commerce and other competent departments shall, within the scope of their respective competence and functions, be responsible for supervision over and dealing with illegal acts in taking advantage of contracts to endanger and harm the State interests and public interests. In case that a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated.

Article 128 The parties may settle their disputes relevant to the contract through conciliation or mediation.
The parties may, if unwilling to settle their disputes through conciliation or mediation or failing in the conciliation or mediation, apply to an arbitration institution for arbitration according to their arbitration agreement. The parties to a contract involving foreign interests may, according to their arbitration agreement, apply for arbitration to a Chinese arbitration institution or other arbitration institutions. If there is no arbitration agreement between the parties or the arbitration agreement is null and void, they may bring a lawsuit before the people's court. The parties shall perform the court judgments, arbitration awards or mediation documents with legal effectiveness. In case any refusal in respect to the performance, the other party may request the people's court for execution.


Article 129 The time limit for action before the people's court or for arbitration before an arbitration institution regarding disputes relating to contracts for international sales of goods and contracts for technology import and export shall be four years, calculating from the date on which the party knows or ought to know the infringement on its rights. The time limits for action before the people's court or for arbitration before an arbitration institution regarding other contracts disputes shall be in accordance with the provisions of the relevant laws.






Article 130 A sales contract is a contract whereby the seller transfers the ownership of an object to the buyer and the buyer pays the price for it.


Article 131 Other than those as stipulated in Article 12 of this Law, a sales contract may also contain such clauses as package manner, inspection standards and method, method of settlement and clearance, language adopted in the contract and its authenticity.


Article 132 An object to be sold shall be owned by the seller or of that the seller is entitled to dispose.
Where the transfer of an object is prohibited or restricted by the laws and administrative regulations, the provisions thereof shall be followed.


Article 133 The ownership of an object shall be transferred upon the delivery of the object, except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.


Article 134 The parties to a sales contract may agree that the own- ership shall belong to the seller if the buyer fails to pay the price or perform other obligations.


Article 135 The seller shall perform the obligation to deliver to the buyer the object or the documents to take delivery of the object, and to transfer the ownership of the object.


Article 136 The seller shall, according to the terms of the contract or transaction practices, deliver to the buyer relevant documents and materials other than the documents to take delivery of the object.


Article 137 When an object such as computer software with intellectual property rights is sold, the intellectual property rights of such object shall not belong to the buyer except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.


Article 138 The seller shall deliver the object according to the agreed time limit. If a time limit of delivery is agreed upon, the seller may deliver at any time within the said time limit.


Article 139 Where there is no agreement in the contract between the parties as to the time limit to deliver the object or such agreement is unclear, the provisions of Article 61 and Sub-Paragraph (4), Article 62 of this Law shall be applied.


Article 140 If an object has been possessed by the buyer before the contract is concluded, the delivery time shall be the time when the contract goes into effect.


Article 141 The seller shall deliver the object according to the agreed place. Where there is no agreement in the contract between the parties as to the place to deliver the object or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the following provisions shall be applied:
(1) In case the object needs carriage, the seller shall deliver the object to the first carrier so as to hand it over to the buyer; or

(2) In case the object does not need carriage, and the seller and buyer know the place of the object when concluding the contract, the seller shall deliver the object at such place; if the place is unknown, the object shall be delivered at the business place of the seller when concluding the contract.


Article 142 The risk of damage to or missing of an object shall be borne by the seller before the delivery of the object and by the buyer after the delivery, except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.


Article 143 Where the object cannot be delivered according to the agreed time limit due to causes of the buyer, the buyer shall bear the risk of damage to or missing of the object as of the agreed date of delivery.


Article 144 Where the seller sells an object delivered to a carrier for carriage and en route of carriage, the risk of damage to or missing of the object shall be borne by the buyer as of the time of establishment of the contract, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 145 Where there is no agreement in the contract between the parties as to the place of delivery or such agreement is unclear, and the object needs carriage according to the provisions of Sub-paragraph (1), Paragraph 2, Article 141 of this Law, the risk of damage to or missing of the object shall be borne by the buyer after the seller has delivered the object to the first carrier.


Article 146 Where the seller has put an object at the place of delivery according to the provisions of Sub-paragraph (2), Paragraph 2, Article 141 of this Law, while the buyer fails to take delivery of the object by violating the terms of the contract, the risk of damage to or missing of the object shall be borne by the buyer as of the date of breach.


Article 147 The buyer's failure in delivering the documents and materials relating to the object according to the terms of the contract may not affect the risk transfer of the damage to or missing of the object.


Article 148 Where it is not able to realize the purpose of a contract because the quality of the object has not satisfied the quality requirements, the buyer may refuse to accept the object or may rescind the contract. Where the buyer refuses to accept the object or rescinds the contract, the seller shall bear the risk of damage to or missing of the object.


Article 149 In case that the buyer bears the risk of damage to or missing of the object, the buyer's right may not be affected to claim the assumption by the seller of the liabilities for breach of contract because of the seller's performance failing to conform with the terms of the contract.


Article 150 The seller shall, in respect of the object delivered, assume the obligation to guarantee that no third party may claim any right to the buyer, except as otherwise stipulated by law.


Article 151 Where the buyer knows or ought to know, when concluding the contract, that a third party has rights on the object to be sold, the seller may assume no obligation as stipulated in Article 150 of this Law.


Article 152 Where the buyer has conclusive evidence to demonstrate that a third party may probably claim rights on the object, the buyer may suspend to pay the corresponding price, unless the seller provides a proper guaranty.


Article 153 The seller shall deliver the object according to the agreed quality requirements. In case that the seller provides with the quality specifications concerning the object, the delivered object shall satisfy the quality requirements in such specifications.


Article 154 Where there is no agreement between the parties in the contract on the object quality requirements or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the provisions of Sub-paragraph (1), Article 62 of this Law shall be applied.


Article 155 Where the object delivered by the seller fails to conform with the quality requirements, the buyer may claim the assumption by the seller of the liabilities for breach of contract according to the provisions of Article 111 of this Law.


Article 156 The seller shall deliver the object in the agreed package manner. Where there is no agreement on package manner in the contract or the agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the object shall be packed in a general manner, and if no general manner, a package manner enough to protect the object shall be adopted.


Article 157 The buyer shall inspect the object within the agreed inspection period after receiving the object. In case there is no such period agreed upon in the contract, the inspection shall be made in time.


Article 158 Where the parties have agreed upon the inspection period in the contract, the buyer shall, within the period for inspection, make a notice to the seller that the object quantity or quality fails to conform with the terms of the contract. If the buyer is indolent in making such a notice, it shall be deemed that the object quantity or quality has conformed with the terms of the contract.
Where there is no agreement between the parties in the contract on the inspection period, the buyer shall make a notice to the seller within a reasonable time period after it finds or ought to find that the object quantity or quality fails to conform with the terms of the contract. If the buyer fails in making a notice within such reasonable time period or within 2 years as of the date of receiving the object, it shall be deemed that the object quantity or quality has conformed with the terms of the contract. However, if there is a quality guarantee period on the object, the said quality guarantee period shall be applied instead of the above said 2 years.
Where the seller knows or ought to know the object to be supplied does not conform with the terms of the contract, the buyer may not be restricted by the time limit as stipulated in the preceding paragraph.


Article 159 The buyer shall pay the price according to the agreed amount in the contract. If there is no agreement in the contract on the price or such agreement is unclear, the provisions of Article 61 and Sub paragraph (2), Article 62 of this Law shall be applied.


Article 160 The buyer shall pay the price at the agreed place. If there is no agreement in the contract on the place of payment or the agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the buyer shall pay at the seller's business place. However, if it is agreed that the delivery of the object or the documents to take delivery of the object is set as a prerequisite to the payment of the price, the payment shall be made at the place where the object or the documents to take delivery of the object are delivered.


Article 161 The buyer shall pay the price at the agreed time. If there is no agreement in the contract on the time of payment or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the buyer shall pay at the same time when receiving the object or the documents to take delivery of the object.


Article 162 Where the seller delivers excessive objects, the buyer may accept or refuse to accept the excess part. In case the buyer accepts the excess part, the buyer shall pay for it at the price in the original contract; if he refuses to accept the excess part, the buyer shall make a notice to the seller promptly.


Article 163 Any fruits generated by the object before delivery shall be owned by the seller, while those generated after delivery shall be owned by the buyer.


Article 164 If a contract is rescinded resulting from that the principal part of the object fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the effectiveness of rescinding the contract shall extend to the collateral part. Where the collateral part of the object fails to satisfy the terms of the contract so that it has been rescinded, the effectiveness of its rescinding may not extend to the principal part.


Article 165 Where the object contains several items and one of them fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the buyer may rescind the contract with respect to such item. However, if its separation from other items will damage the object value obviously, the parties may rescind the contract with respect to such several items.


Article 166 Where the seller delivers the object in batches, if the seller fails to deliver one batch of the object or the delivery fails to satisfy the terms of the contract so that the said batch can not realize the contract purpose, the buyer may rescind the contract with respect to such batch of object.
If the seller fails to deliver one batch of object or the delivery fails to satisfy the terms of the contract so that the delivery of the subsequent batches of objects can not realize the contract purpose, the buyer may rescind the contract with respect to such batch and the subsequent batches of objects.
If the buyer has rescinded the contract with respect to one batch of object and such batch of object is indispensable to other batches of the objects, the buyer may rescind the contract with respect to the various batches of objects delivered and undelivered.


Article 167 Where the buyer making payment by installments fails to pay the price due and the amount unpaid accounts for one fifth of the whole price, the seller may request the buyer to pay the whole price or may rescind the contract.
Where the seller rescinds the contract, the seller may request the buyer to pay for the use of such object.


Article 168 The parties to a sales transaction based upon the sample shall seal up the sample, and may make specifications on the sample quality. The object delivered by the seller shall have the same quality as the sample and the specifications.


Article 169 Where the buyer to a sales transaction based upon the sample does not know that the sample has a hidden defect, even if the object delivered is the same as the sample, the object delivered by the seller shall still meet the normal standards of the kind.


Article 170 The parties to a sales transaction on trial use may agree on the period of trial use of the object. If there is no agreement in the contract on such period or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, it shall be determined by the seller.


Article 171 The buyer to a sales transaction on trial use may, during the period of trial use, buy the object or refuse to buy it. Upon the expiry of the period of trial use, if the buyer fails to express whether or not to buy the object, the purchase shall be deemed.


Article 172 The rights and obligations of the parties to a sales transaction in the form of inviting and making tenders and the procedures therefor, shall be in accordance with the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations.


Article 173 The rights and obligations of the parties to an auction and the procedures therefor, shall be in accordance with the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations.


Article 174 Where there is any provision on other non-gratuitous contracts in the laws, such provisions shall be followed; if no such provisions, the relevant provisions on sales contracts shall be applied mutatis mutandis.


Article 175 Where the parties make an agreement on a barter trade, and the ownership of the object is to be transferred, the relevant provisions on sales contracts shall be applied mutatis mutandis.


CHAPTER 10 CONTRACTS FOR SUPPLY AND USE OF ELECTRICITY, WATER, GAS OR

Article 176 A contract for supply and use of electricity refers to a contract whereby the supplier of electricity supplies electricity to the user of electricity, and the user pays the electric fee.


Article 177 The contents of a contract for supply and use of electricity shall contain such clauses as the manner, quality, and time of supplying electricity, quantity of use, address and character of use, method of measurement, method of settlement and clearance of electricity price and fees, and the responsibility for maintaining the facilities for supply and use of electricity.


Article 178 The place where a contract for supply and use of electricity is to be performed shall be agreed upon by the parties. Where there is no such agreement between the parties in the contract or such agreement is unclear, the place where the property rights of the electricity supply facilities are demarcated shall be the place of performance.


Article 179 The supplier of electricity shall safely supply electricity in accordance with the standards for the supply of electricity stipulated by the State and the terms of the contract. Where the supplier of electricity fails to safely supply electricity in accordance with the standards for the supply of electricity as stipulated by the State and the terms of the contract, and causes losses to the user of electricity, it shall be liable for damages.


Article 180 When the supplier of electricity needs to suspend the supply of electricity due to such reasons as planned or ad hoc inspection and repair of the facilities for supply of electricity, restriction on electricity according to law or use of electricity in violating the law on the part of the user, it shall notify the user of electricity in advance in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State. Where it suspends the supply without notifying the user in advance and causes losses to the user, the supplier of electricity shall be liable for damages.


Article 181 Where the supplier of electricity suspends the supply of electricity due to such reasons as natural disasters, it shall make prompt repairs in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State. Where it fails to make prompt repairs and causes losses to the user, it shall be liable for damages.


Article 182 The user of electricity shall pay the electricity fees as scheduled in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and the terms of the contract. If the user of electricity does not pay the electricity fees within the time limit, it shall pay breach of contract damages in accordance with the terms of the contract. If the user still does not pay the electricity fees and the breach of contract damages, the supplier may suspend the supply of electricity in accordance with the procedures stipulated by the State.


Article 183 The user of electricity shall use the electricity in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State and the terms of the contract. Where the user of electricity fails to use the electricity safely according to the relevant provisions of the State and the terms of the contract and causes losses to the supplier of electricity, it shall be liable for damages.


Article 184 Contracts for supply and use of water, gas or heating shall apply mutatis mutandis the provisions on contracts for supply and use of electricity.


CHAPTER 11 CONTRACTS FOR DONATION

Article 185 A donation contract refers to a contract whereby the donator presents gratis its property to the donee, and the donee expresses the acception of the donation.


Article 186 The donator may rescind the donation before transferring of the rights of the donated property.
Where the donation contract is of such nature as for public welfare or moral obligation in providing disaster or poverty relief, or the donation contract is notarized, the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not be applied.


Article 187 If the donated property needs to go through such formalities as registration according to law, the relevant formalities shall be completed.


Article 188 In case of a donation contract being of such nature as for public welfare or moral obligation in providing disaster or poverty relief, or that the donation contract is notarized, if the donator does not deliver the donated property, the donee may request for the delivery.


Article 189 Where, due to the deliberate intention or gross fault of the donator, destruction or losses are caused to the donated property, the donator shall be liable for damages.


Article 190 The donation may be subject to collateral obligations.


Where the donation is subject to collateral obligations, the donee shall perform the obligations in accordance with the terms of the contract.


Article 191 Where the donated property has defects, the donator shall not bear any liability. In case of a donation subject to collateral obligations, if the donated property has defects, the donator shall bear the same liability as a seller within the limit of the collateral obligations.
Where the donator does not inform of the defects intentionally or insures that there is no defect, thus causing losses to the donee, the donator shall be liable for damages.


Article 192 Where the donee is under any of the following circumstances, the donator may rescind the donation:
(1) seriously infringing upon the donator or his/her close relatives;

(2) not performing the obligation in respect of supporting the donator;


(3) not performing the obligation agreed upon in the donation contract.


The right of the donator to rescission shall be exercised within one year as of the date when he knows or ought to know the rescission reasons.


Article 193 In case of the donee's illegal acts resulting in the death of the donator or the loss of the donator's civil of capacity conduct, the heir or statutory agent of the donator may rescind the donation.
The right to rescission of the heir or statutory agent of the donator shall be exercised within six months as of the date when he knows or ought to know the rescission reasons.


Article 194 Where a person having the right to rescission rescinds the donation, the person may request the donee to return the donated property.


Article 195 Where economic conditions of the donator is strikingly deteriorating, which seriously affects his/her production and business operations or the family life, the donator may no longer perform the donation obligation.


Article 196 A loan contract refers to a contract whereby the borrower raises a loan from the lender, and repays the loan with interest thereof when it becomes due.


Article 197 Loan contracts shall be in written form, except as otherwise agreed upon by natural persons in respect of loans between them.
The contents of a loan contract shall contain such clauses as the category of loans, the kind of currency, the purpose of use, the amount, the interest rate, the term and the method for returning the loan.


Article 198 In concluding a loan contract, the lender may require the borrower to provide a guaranty. The guaranty shall abide by the provisions of the Guaranty Law of the People's Republic of China.


Article 199 In concluding a loan contract, the borrower shall provide with the truthful information about the business activities and financial conditions relating to the loan according to the requirements of the lender.


Article 200 The interest of the loan shall not be deducted from the principal in advance. Where the interest is deducted in advance from the principal, the loan shall be repaid and the amount of the interest calculated according to the actual amount of the loan.


Article 201 Where the lender fails to extend the loan in accordance with the agreed date and amount and causes losses to the borrower, the lender shall compensate for the losses.
Where the borrower fails to accept the loan in accordance with the agreed date and amount, the borrower shall pay the interest according to the agreed date and amoant.


Article 202 The lender may inspect and supervise the use of the loan in accordance with the terms of the contract. The borrower shall provide regularly the relevant financial statements and other materials to the lender in accordance with the terms of the contract.


Article 203 Where the borrower fails to use the loan in accordance with the agreed usage of the loan, the lender may cease in extending the loan, recall the loan ahead of time or rescind the contract.


Article 204 Loan interest rates of the financial institutions conducting loan business shall be determined according to the upper limit and lower limit of loan interest rates stipulated by the People's Bank of China.


Article 205 The borrower shall pay the interest in accordance with the agreed time limit. Where there is no agreement in the contract as to the time limit for payment of interest or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the interest shall be paid at the time when the loan is returned for loans under a term of less than one year; as for loans under a term of more than one year, the interest shall be paid at the time when every one full year expires, and if the remaining term is less than one year, the interest thereof shall be paid at the time when the loan is returned.


Article 206 The borrower shall return the loan in accordance with the agreed time limit in the contract. Where there is no agreement in the contract as to the loan term or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the borrower may return the loan at any time, and the lender may urge the borrower to return the loan within a reasonable time limit.


Article 207 Where the borrower fails to return the loan in accordance with the agreed time limit, the borrower shall pay overdue interest according to the terms of the contract or the relevant provisions of the State.


Article 208 Where the borrower returns the loan ahead of time, except as otherwise agreed upon between the parties, the interest thereof shall be calculated according to the actual term of the loan.


Article 209 The borrower may apply to the lender for an extension of the loan return term before the loan term expires. If the lender consents, the term may be extended.


Article 210 A loan contract between natural persons shall come into force as of the time when the lender extends the loan.


Article 211 If there is no agreement in a loan contract between natural persons as to the payment of interest or such agreement is unclear, it shall be deemed as non-payment of interest.
If the payment of interest is agreed in a loan contract between natural persons, the loan interest rates shall not violate the provisions of the State on the restriction on loan interest rates.

Article 212 A lease contract refers to a contract whereby the lessor shall deliver the leased property to the lessee for the latter's use or obtaining proceeds through the use, and the lessee pays the rent.


Article 213 The contents of a lease contract shall contain such clauses as the name, quantity, purpose for use, term of the lease, rent as well as time limit and method for its payment, maintenance of the leased property.


Article 214 The term of a lease may not exceed 20 years; in case of a term exceeding 20 years, the exceeding part shall be invalid.
At the expiry of the term of the lease, the parties may extend the lease contract; however, the extended term of the lease agreed upon shall not exceed 20 years as of the date of extending the contract.


Article 215 Where the lease term is above 6 months, the lease contract shall be in written form. If the parties do not conclude it in written form, it shall be deemed an unfixed lease.


Article 216 The lessor shall deliver the leased property to the lessee and keep it being fit for the use according to the terms of the contract during the term of the lease.


Article 217 The lessee shall use the leased property in accordance with the methods agreed upon in the contract. Where there is no agreement in the contract on the methods for using the leased property or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the leased property shall be used in a manner in light of its nature.


Article 218 Where the lessee uses the leased property in accordance with the methods agreed upon in the contract or the nature of the leased property and causes losses to the leased property, the lessee shall not bear the liability for damages.


Article 219 Where the lessee uses the leased property not in accordance with the methods agreed upon in the contract or the nature of the leased property and causes losses to the leased property, the lessor may rescind the contract and claim compensation for losses.


Article 220 The lessor shall perform the obligation of maintenance of the leased property, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 221 The lessee may request the lessor to maintain and repair the leased property within a reasonable time limit when the leased property needs maintenance and repair. Where the lessor fails to perform the obligation of maintaining and repairing the leased property, the lessee may maintain it by itself, and the expenses for the maintenance shall be borne by the lessor. Where the maintenance affects the use of the leased property, the rent shall be reduced or the lease term shall be extended correspondingly.


Article 222 The lessee shall keep the leased property in proper storage. In case that improper storage causes destruction of, damage to or lost of the leased property, the lessee shall bear the liability for damages.


Article 223 With the consent of the lessor, the lessee may improve or add other items to the leased property.


Where the lessee improves or adds other items to the leased property without the consent of the lessor, the lessor may request the lessee to restore it to the original conditions or compensate for the losses.


Article 224 With the consent of the lessor, the lessee may sublet the leased property to a third party. In case of subletting by the lessee, the lease contract between the lessee and lessor shall continue to be effective, and the lessee shall compensate for the losses if the third party causes losses to the leased property.
Where the lessee sublets the leased property without the consent of the lessor, the lessor may rescind the contract.


Article 225 The proceeds gained due to possession or use of the leased property shall belong to the lessee, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 226 The lessee shall pay the rent according to the time limit agreed upon in the contract. Where there is no agreement in the contract as to the time limit for payment or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the rent shall be paid at the expiry of the lease term if the lease term is less than one year, or shall be paid at the expiry of every one full year if the lease term is more than one year, the rest of rent shall be paid at the expiry of the lease term if the remaining lease term is less than one year.


Article 227 Where the lessee fails to pay or delays the payment of the rent without justified reasons, the lessor may require it to pay the rent within a reasonable time limit. If the lessee fails to pay the rent according to the time limit, the lessor may rescind the contract.


Article 228 Where a third party claims rights and makes it impossible for the lessee to use or obtain proceeds from the leased property, the lessee may request a reduction of rent or not to pay the rent.
Where rights are claimed by a third party, the lessee shall notify the lessor promptly.


Article 229 In case of a change with regard to the ownership of the leased property, the effectiveness of the contract shall not be affected.


Article 230 If the lessor sells out a leased house, it shall, within a reasonable time limit before the sale, notify the lessee and the lessee shall have the right to priority to buy the leased house on equal conditions.


Article 231 If, due to causes which are not attributable to the lessee, part or all of the leased property is damaged, destroyed or lost, the lessee may request for a reduction of the rent or not to pay the rent. If the damage to or destruction or loss of part or all of the leased property makes it impossible to realize the purpose of the contract, the lessee may rescind the contract.


Article 232 Where there is no agreement between the parties in the contract as to the term of the lease or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, such lease shall be considered to be an unfixed lease. The parties may rescind the contract at any time, but the lessor shall, at the rescission of the contract, notify the lessee before a reasonable time limit.


Article 233 Where the leased property endangers the safety or health of the lessee, even if the lessee knows the leased property does not meet the quality requirements when concluding the contract, the lessee may rescind the contract at any time.


Article 234 Where the lessee is deceased during the term of a house lease, the persons who live together with the deceased may lease the house in accordance with the original lease contract.


Article 235 The lessee shall return the leased property at the expiry of the lease term. The property returned shall be in conformity with the conditions after use according to the terms of the contract or the nature of the leased property.



Article 236 Where the lessee continues to use the leased property after the expiry of the lease term, and the lessor does not raise objection, the original lease contract shall continue to be effective, but the lease term is not fixed.


CHAPTER 14 CONTRACTS FOR FINANCIAL LEASE

Article 237 A financial lease contract refers to a contract whereby the lessor buys the leased property from the seller based on the lessee's choice of the seller and the leased property, and supplies it to the lessee for the latter's use, and the lessee pays the rent.

Article 238 The contents of a financial lease contract shall contain such clauses as the title, quantity, specifications, technical performance and inspection methods of the leased property, the term of the lease, the rent composition and the time limit and kinds of currencies for payment of the rent, and the attribution of the leased property at the expiry of the lease term.A financial lease contract shall be in written form.


Article 239 With regard to the sales contract concluded by the lessor based on the lessees' choice of the seller and the leased property, the seller shall deliver the object to the lessee according to the terms of the contract, and the lessee shall enjoy the rights of a buyer relating to the received object.


Article 240 The lessor, seller and lessee may agree that, where the sellor fails to perform the sales contract, the lessee shall exercise the right to claims. Where the lessee exercises the right, the lessor shall provide assistance.


Article 241 The sales contract concluded by the lessor based on the lessee's choice of the seller and the leased property, shall not be modified in respect of the contents of the contract relating to the lessee without the consent of the lessee.


Article 242 The lessor shall be entitled to the ownership of the leased property. In case of bankruptcy of the lessee, the leased property does not belong to the bankrupt property.


Article 243 The rent under a financial lease contract shall be determined according to the major part or whole of the cost for purchasing the leased property and reasonable profits of the lessor, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 244 Where the leased property does not conform to the terms of the contract or the purpose of its use, the lessor shall not bear any liability, except that the lessee decides on the choice of the leased property depending on the skills of the lessor or the lessor interferes with the choice of the leased property.


Article 245 The lessor shall insure the lessee's possession and use of the leased property.


Article 246 Where the leased property causes personal injury or property damage to a third party during the period wherein the lessee possesses the leased property, the lessor does not bear liability.


Article 247 The lessee shall keep the leased property in a proper storage and use it properly.


The lessee shall perform the obligation for maintenance of the leased property during the period wherein the lessee possesses the leased property.


Article 248 The lessee shall pay the rent according to the terms of the contract. If the lessee still does not pay the rent within a reasonable time limit after being urged, the lessor may request it to pay all the rent, or rescind the contract and take back the leased property.


Article 249 Where the parties agree in the contract that the leased property shall belong to the lessee at the expiry of the lease term, the lessee has paid the majority of the rent but is unable to pay the remaining rent, and the lessor rescinds the contract for this reason and takes back the leased property, the lessee may request the lessor to return a certain part if the value of the leased property taken back exceeds the rent and other expenses which the lessee owes to the lessor.


Article 250 The lessor and lessee may agree upon the attribution of the leased property at the expiry of the lease term. Where there is no agreement in the contract as to the attribution of the leased property or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the ownership of the leased property shall belong to the lessor.


Article 251 A work contract refers to a contract whereby the contractor shall, in light of the requirements of the ordering party, complete the work and deliver the results therefrom, and the ordering party pays the remuneration therefor.
Work includes processing, ordering, repairing, duplicating, testing, inspecting, etc..


Article 252 The contents of a work contract shall contain such clauses as the object, quantity, quality, remuneration and method of the work, supply of materials, term of performance, standards and method of inspection.


Article 253 The contractor shall use its own equipment, technology and labour force to complete the principal part of the work, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
Where the contractor assigns the contracted work to a third party for completion, the contractor shall be responsible to the ordering party in respect of the work results completed by the third party. Where the assignment is without the consent by the ordering party, the ordering party may rescind the contract.


Article 254 The contractor may assign some auxiliary work contracted to a third party for completion. The contractor shall be responsible to the ordering party for the work results completed by a third party if the contractor assigns the auxiliary work to the third party.


Article 255 Where the contractor provides with materials, the contractor shall select and use the materials according to the terms of the contract and accept inspection by the ordering party.


Article 256 Where the ordering party supplies materials, the ordering party shall supply the materials according to the terms of the contract. The contractor shall promptly inspect the materials supplied by the ordering party and, if it discovers that they do not conform to the agreement in the contract, it shall promptly notify the ordering party to replace them or supply what is lacking or take other remedial measures.
The contractor may not unilaterally replace any materials supplied by the ordering party, and may not replace the components which do not need to be repaired.


Article 257 Where the contractor discovers that the drawings supplied by the ordering party or the technical requirements are unreasonable, it shall promptly notify the ordering party. If, due to the indolent reply of the ordering party and other reasons, losses are caused to the contractor, the ordering party shall be liable for making compensation.


Article 258 Where the ordering party changes the requirements of the contracted work midway and causes losses to the contractor, the ordering party shall be liable for making compensation.


Article 259 If the contracted work needs the assistance of the ordering party, the ordering party shall have the obligation to provide assistance Where the ordering party does not perform the assistance obligation and causes the contracted work unable to be completed, the contractor may urge the ordering party to perform its obligation within a reasonable time limit and may prolong the term of performance; the contractor may rescind the contract if the ordering party does not perform such obligation within the time limit.


Article 260 The contractor shall, during the period of working, accept the necessary supervision over and inspection of the work by the ordering party. The ordering party may not obstruct the contractor's normal work with the supervision and inspection.


Article 261 Where the contractor completes the work, it shall deliver the results of the work to the ordering party, and submit necessary technical materials and the relevant quality certificates. The ordering party shall examine and accept the results of the work.


Article 262 Where the results of the work delivered by the contractor do not conform to the quality requirements, the ordering party may request the contractor to bear such liabilities for the breach of contract as repairing, reprocessing, reducing remuneration and making compensation.


Article 263 The ordering party shall pay remuneration according to the time limit agreed by the parties in the contract. Where there is no agreement in the contract as to the time limit for payment of remuneration or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the ordering party shall pay it at the same time when the results of the work are delivered; where only part of the work results is delivered, the ordering party shall make corresponding payment.


Article 264 Where the ordering party fails to pay the remuneration or the price for the materials and etc., the contractor shall have the right to lien upon the results of the work, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 265 The contractor shall keep in a proper storage the materials supplied by the ordering party and the work results completed, and the contractor shall be liable for damages if they are distroyed, damaged or lost due to improper storage.


Article 266 The contractor shall maintain confidentiality according to the requirements of the ordering party and may not, without permission thereby, withhold and preserve the duplicates or technical materials.


Article 267 Co-contractors shall bear joint and several liability to the ordering party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 268 The ordering party may rescind the contract at any time, but it shall bear the liability for making compensation for losses, if the contractor suffers losses therefrom.


CHAPTER 16 CONTRACTS FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS


Article 269 A construction project contract refers to a contract whereby the contractor undertakes the construction of the project and the contract letting party pays the cost and remuneration.
Construction project contracts include project survey contracts, project design contracts and project construction contracts.

Article 270 Construction project contracts shall be in written form.


Article 271 The invitation and submission of tenders to a construction project shall be proceeded openly, equally and fairly according to the provisions of relevant laws.


Article 272 The contract letting party may enter into a construction project contract with a general contractor, or enter into a survey contract, design contract or construction contract with a surveyor, designer or constructor respectively.
The contract letting party may not divide the construction project that should be fulfilled by one contractor into several parts so as to be finished by several contractors.
With the consent of the contract letting party, the general contractor or the contractors for survey, design or construction may assign part of the contracted work to a third party. The third party shall assume joint and several liability to the contract letting party together with the general contractor or the contractors for survey, design or construction in respect of its work achievements. A contractor may not assign the whole contracted project to a third party or divide the whole contracted construction project into several parts and assign them respectively to third parties in the name of subletting.
The contractors are forbidden to sublet the project to any unit not having corresponding qualifications. The sub-contractor is forbidden to sublet its contracted work once again. The construction of the main body of the construction project must be completed by the general contractor.


Article 273 Contracts for major construction projects of the State shall be concluded in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the State and the investment plans, feasibility study reports and other documents approved by the State.


Article 274 The contents of a survey or design contract shall contain such clauses as the time limit for submission of the relevant basic materials and documents (including estimated budgets), the quality requirements, the expenses and other terms for cooperation.


Article 275 The contents of a construction contract shall contain such clauses as the scope of the construction, time period for the construction, the time for beginning and completing the intermediate construction projects, the quality of the construction, the cost of the construction, the time for submission of technical data, the responsibility for supply of materials and equipment, the allocation of funds and settlement of accounts, the inspection and acceptance of the project upon completion, the scope for guaranteed maintenance and repair and the quality guaranty period, the mutual cooperation of the two parties.


Article 276 Where supervision is practised in respect of a construction project, the contract letting party shall enter into a written supervision commission contract with a supervisor. The rights, obligations and legal liabilities of the contract letting party and the supervisor shall be in accordance with the provisions on commission contracts of this Law and other relevant laws and administrative regulations.


Article 277 The contract letting party may inspect the operation progress and quality at any time provided not hampering the contractor from normal operation.


Article 278 Before covering a project which needs to be covered, the contractor shall notify the contract letting party to inspect the project. If the contract letting party fails to inspect it in time, the contractor may prolong the construction period, and shall have the right to request the contract letting party for compensation for losses caused by work stoppages and idling of the labour force, etc.


Article 279 Upon completion of a construction project, the contract letting party shall inspect and accept the projects in time according to the construction drawings and specifications as well as the construction inspection rules and quality standards issued by the State. If qualified, the contract letting party shall pay the costs and remuneration and accept the construction project according to the terms of the contract. A construction project may not be delivered for use until it is qualified through inspection and acceptance. A construction project may not be delivered for use without inspection and acceptance or proved to be unqualified through inspection and acceptance.


Article 280 Where the quality of survey or design work is not in conformity with the requirements, or the survey or design documents are not submitted in due time, thus delaying the construction period and causing losses to the contract letting party, the surveyor or designer shall continue to complete the survey or design, reduce or do not charge the survey and design fees, and make compensation for the losses.


Article 281 If, due to the causes of the constructor, the construction quality does not conform to the terms of the contract, the contract letting party shall have the right to request the constructor to repair or reconstruct within a reasonable time limit free of charge. If such repair or reconstruction results in overdue delivery of the project, the constructor shall be liable for the breach of contract.


Article 282 If, due to the causes of the contractor, personal injury and property losses have occurred within the period of reasonable use of the construction project, the contractor shall be liable for damages.


Article 283 If the contract letting party has not supplied the raw materials, equipment, sites, funds or technical data according to the agreed time and requirements in the contract, the contractor may prolong the construction period and shall have the right to request for compensation for the losses caused by work stoppages and idling of the labour force, etc.


Article 284 If, due to the causes of the contract letting party, a construction project pauses or is postponed in the course, the contract letting party shall adopt measures to offset or reduce the losses and compensate the contractor for losses and actual expenses incurred as a result of work stoppages, idling of the labour force, changes in transportation, transfer and move of machinery and equipment, overstocking of materials and components, etc.


Article 285 If, due to modification of the plan, or inaccuracy of the data supplied or a failure in providing the necessary conditions for survey and design work according to the time limit by the contract letting party, the survey and design work has to be redone or stopped, or the design revised, the contract letting party shall pay additional expenses for the amount of work actually rendered by the surveyor or designer.


Article 286 If the contract letting party fails to pay the costs and remuneration in accordance with the terms of the contract, the contractor may urge the contract letting party to pay the money within a reasonable time limit. If the contract letting party fails to pay within the time limit, except that it is not appropriate to convert the construction project into money or auction it due to its characters, the contractor may consult with the contract letting party to convert the project into money, or apply to the people's court to auction the project according to law. The costs and remuneration of the construction project shall be compensated in priority by the money derived from the conversion or auction.


Article 287 Matters not addressed in this Chapter shall apply the relevant provisions on contracts for work.


CHAPTER 17 CONTRACTS FOR TRANSPORTATION

Article 288 A transportation contract refers to a contract whereby the carrier carries passengers or goods from the starting place of carriage to the agreed destination, and the passenger or the shipper or the consignee pays for the ticket-fare or freight.


Article 289 A carrier engaged in public transportation may not refuse the normal and reasonable carriage request of a passenger or shipper.


Article 290 A carrier shall carry the passenger or goods safely to the agreed destination within the agreed time period or within a reasonable time period.


Article 291 A carrier shall carry the passenger or goods to the agreed destination via the agreed or customary carriage route.


Article 292 A passenger or a shipper or a consignee shall pay for the ticket-fare or for the freight. Where a carrier has not taken the agreed route or a customary carriage route, and consequently increased the ticket-fare or the freight, the passenger or the shipper or the consignee may refuse to pay for the increased part of the ticket-fare or the freight.


SECTION 2 CONTRACTS FOR PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

Article 293 A passenger transportation contract shall be established at the time when the carrier delivers the ticket to the passenger except as otherwise agreed upon in the contract by the parties or there are other transaction practices.


Article 294 A passenger on board shall hold a valid ticket. A passenger on board without a ticket or exceeds the distance paid for or takes a higher class or higher berth than booked or holds an invalid ticket, shall make up the payment for an appropriate ticket. The carrier may charge an additional payment according to the rules. Where the passenger refuses to make such a payment, the carrier may refuse to undertake the carriage.


Article 295 A passenger unable to embark on the time stated on the ticket due to his/her own fault, shall go through ticket cancellation and refund for malities or ticket modification formalities within the agreed time period. Where the passenger fails to do so within the time period, the carrier may refuse to make the refund and shall no longer assume the obligation of carriage.


Article 296 A passenger shall bring with him/her luggage within the agreed limit of quantity. A passenger takes luggage exceeding the limit shall check in the luggage.


Article 297 A passenger may not bring with him/her or pack in the luggage such dangerous articles as are inflammable, explosive, corrosive or radioactive as well as those that might endanger the safety of life and property on board the transportation vehicle or other contraband articles.
Where a passenger violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may discharge the contraband articles, destroy them or hand them over to relevant departments. Where the passenger insists on bringing or packing in the luggage the contraband articles, the carrier shall refuse the carriage.


Article 298 A carrier shall inform the passengers in time of the important causes which hinders the normal carriage and the matters which shall be noted for purpose of safety carriage.


Article 299 A carrier shall carry passengers in conformity with the time and the carriage schedule stated on the ticket. A carrier delaying the carriage shall arrange the passengers to take other flights or numbers, or refund the tickets as requested by the passengers.


Article 300 A carrier unilaterally changing the carriage vehicle and consequently lowering the standards of service shall refund the ticket or lower the price of the ticket as requested by the passenger. A carrier unilaterally raising the standards of service, shall not charge additional ticket-fare.


Article 301 A carrier shall, during the period of carriage, render whatever help and assistance as it can to a passenger who is seriously ill, or who is giving birth to a child or whose life is at risk.


Article 302 A carrier shall be liable for damages for the death of or personal injury to passengers during the period of carriage, unless the death or personal injury results from the health conditions of the passenger himself/herself, or the carrier proves that the death or personal injury is caused by the deliberate intention or gross fault of the passenger.
The preceding paragraph shall be applicable to a passenger who is exempted from buying the ticket according to relevant rules, or who is holding a preferential ticket, or who is permitted by the carrier to be on board without a ticket.


Article 303 Where an article that the passenger takes with him/her on board is damaged or destroyed during the period of carriage, the carrier shall be liable for the damage if it has committed fault.
Where a check-in luggage of a passenger is damaged or destroyed, the relevant rules for the carriage of goods shall be applied.


SECTION 3 CONTRACTS FOR GOODS TRANSPORTATION


Article 304 A shipper, when handling the formalities for goods carriage, shall precisely indicate to the carrier, the title or name of the consignee or consignee by order, the name, nature, weight, amount and the place for taking delivery of the goods, and other information necessary for goods carriage.
Where a carrier suffers from damage due to untrue declaration or omission of important information by the shipper, the shipper shall be liable for damages.


Article 305 Where such formalities as examination and approval or inspection are required for goods carriage, the shipper shall submit the documents of fulfillment of the relevant formalities to the carrier.


Article 306 A shipper shall pack the goods in the agreed manner. Where there is no agreement in the contract as to the manner of packing or such agreement is unclear, the provisions of Article 156 of this Law shall be applied.
Where a shipper violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to undertake the carriage.


Article 307 When shipping such dangerous articles as are inflammable, explosive, corrosive or radioactive, a shipper shall appropriately pack the articles in conformity with the rules of the State governing the carriage of dangerous articles, and put on the marks and labels for dangerous articles and submit the written papers relating to the nature and measures of precaution to the carrier.


Where a shipper violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier may refuse to undertake the carriage, or take corresponding measures to avoid damage. Expenses thus caused shall be borne by the shipper.


Article 308 Prior to the delivery of goods to the consignee by the carrier, the shipper may request the carrier to suspend the carriage, to return the goods, to alter the destination or to deliver the goods to another consignee. The shipper shall compensate the carrier for losses thus caused.


Article 309 After the goods carriage is completed, if the carrier has the knowledge of the consignee, it shall notify the consignee promptly and the consignee shall claim the goods promptly. Where the consignee claims the goods exceeding the time limit, it shall pay to the carrier for such expenses as storage of the goods, etc.


Article 310 When claiming the goods, a consignee shall inspect the goods within the agreed time limit in the contract. Where there is no agreement in the contract on the time limit or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to Article 61 of this Law, the consignee shall inspect the goods within a reasonable time limit. The failure of the consignee to make any claims on the amount, damage or losses of the goods within the agreed time limit or within a reasonable time limit, shall be deemed as the preliminary evidence that the carrier has delivered the goods in conformity with the statements indicated on the carriage documents.


Article 311 A carrier shall be liable for damages for the damage to or destruction of goods during the period of carriage unless the carrier proves that the damage to or destruction of goods is caused by force majeure, by inherent natural charactes of the goods, by reasonable loss, or by the fault on the part of the shipper or consignee.


Article 312 The amount of damages for the damage to or destruction of the goods shall be the amount as agreed on in the contract by the parties where there is such an agreement. Where there is no such an agreement or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the market price at the place where the goods are delivered at the time of delivery or at the time when the goods should be delivered shall be applied. Where the laws or administrative regulations stipulate otherwise on the method of calculation of damages and on the ceiling of the amount of damages, those provisions shall be followed.


Article 313 Where more than one carriers take a connect carriage in the same manner of transportation, the carrier who concludes the contract with the shipper shall bear the liability for the entire transport. Where loss of goods occurred in a specific section, the carrier who concludes the contract with the shipper and the carrier who is responsible for the specific section shall bear joint and several liability.


Article 314 Where the goods are destroyed due to force majeure during the period of carriage and the freight has not been collected, the carrier may not request the payment of the freight. Where the freight has been collected, the shipper may request the refund of the freight.


Article 315 Where the shipper or the consignee fails to pay the freight, storage expense and other carriage expenses, the carrier is entitled to lien on the relevant carried goods except as otherwise agreed upon in the contract.


Article 316 Where the consignee is unclear or the consignee refuses to claim the goods without justified reasons, the carrier may have the goods deposited according to the provisions of Article 101 of this law.


SECTION 4 CONTRACTS FOR MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION


Article 317 A multi-modal transportation business operator shall be responsible for the performance or the organizing of performance of the multi-modal transportation contract, enjoy the rights and assume the obligations of the carrier for the entire transport.


Article 318 A multi-modal transportation business operator may enter into agreements with the carriers participating in the multi-modal transportation in different sections of the transport on their respective responsibilities for different sections under the multi-modal transportation contract.


Article 319 A multi-modal transportation business operator shall issue multi-modal transportation documents upon receiving the goods from the shipper. The multi-modal transportation documents may be negotiable or non-negotiable, as requested by the shipper.


Article 320 Where a multi-modal transportation business operator suffers losses due to the fault of the shipper when shipping the goods, the shipper shall bear the liability for damages even if the shipper has transferred the multi-modal transportation documents to other parties.


Article 321 Where the damage to, destruction or loss of goods occurres in a specific section of the multi-modal transportation, the liability of the multi-modal transportation business operator for damages and the limit thereof shall be governed by the relevant laws on the specific model of transportation used in the specific section. Where the section of transportation in which the damage or destruction or loss occurred can not be identified, the liability for damages shall be governed by the provisions of this Chapter.


CHAPTER 18 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNOLOGY


Article 322 A technology contract refers to a contract that the parties conclude for purpose of establishing rights and obligations of the parties regarding technology development, technology transfer, technical consultancy and technical services.


Article 323 The conclusion of a technology contract must facilitate the progress of science and technology, accelerate the commercialization, application and dissemination of the achievements of science and technology.


Article 324 The contents of a technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall contain the following clauses in general:

(1) title of the project;


(2) contents, scope and requirements of the targeted object;


(3) plan, schedule, time period, place, areas covered and manner of performance;


(4) maintenance of confidentiality of technical information and materials;


(5) sharing of liability for risks;


(6) ownership of technological achievements and method of sharing proceeds;


(7) standards and method of inspection and acceptance;


(8) price, remuneration or royalties and method of payment;


(9) damages for breach of contract or method for calculating the amount of compensation for losses;


(10) methods for settlement of disputes; and


(11) interpretation of technical terms and expressions.


Background materials on the technology, reports on feasibility studies and technological appraisals, project descriptions and plans, technological standards, technological specifications, original designs and documents on technological processes, as well as other technology files relevant to the performance of the contract may be deemed as an integral part of the contract as agreed upon by the parties in the contract.
Where a technology contract involves patents, the title of the invention or creation, the patent applicant and the patentee, the date and number of application, the patent number as well as the valid time period of patent rights shall be indicated.


Article 325 The method of payment of price, remuneration or royalties in the technology contract shall be agreed upon by the parties. The parties may agree on the method of an overall calculation and one time payment, or of an overall calculation and payment by installment. They may also agree on the method of proportionate payment or such payment plus an advance payment of entrance fee.
Where the method of proportionate payment is agreed upon in the contract, the payment may be made according to a specific proportion to the price of the product, to the increased value of output derived from exploitation of the patent or from use of the know-how, to the profit or to the sales. They may also agree on other methods of calculation. The proportion may be a fixed proportion, or a proportion with yearly progressive increase or decrease.
Where the proportionate payment is agreed upon, the parties shall agree in the contract on the methods of checking on the relevant accounting books.


Article 326 Where the right to use or to transfer a job-related techn ological achievement belongs to the legal person or other organization, the legal person or other organization may conclude technology contracts with regard to the job-related technological achievement. The legal person or other organization shall extract a certain proportion from the proceeds acquired from the use and transfer of such job-related technological achievement to reward or remunerate the individual who accomplished this technological achievement. Where a legal person other organization concludes a technology contract to transfer the job-related technological achievement, the individual who accomplished this technological achievement shall have the priority to be the transferee on equal conditions.
A job-related technological achievement refers to a technological achievement accomplished in the process of carrying out the task of the legal person, or other organization, or mainly through using the materials and technological means thereof.


Article 327 The right to use or transfer a non-job-related technological achievement belongs to the individual who accomplished it. The individual may conclude a technology contract on such non-job-related technological achievement.


Article 328 An individual who has accomplished a technological achievement shall have the right to be named as such in the documents related to the technological achievement and the right to receive certificates of honor and awards.


Article 329 A technology contract which monopolizes the technology or impedes the technological progress, or which infringes upon the technological achievement of others shall be null and void.


SECTION 2 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT


Article 330 A technology development contract refers to a contract concluded between the parties for purpose of conducting research in and development of new technologies, new products, new processes and new materials as well as their systems.
Technology development contracts include commissioned development contracts and cooperative development contracts.
A technology development contract shall be in writen form.
A contract concluded between the parties for purpose of application or commercialization of certain technological achievement which has potential value for industrial application shall apply the provisions concerning technology development contracts mutatis mutandis.


Article 331 The commissioning party to a commissioned development contract shall pay for the research and development expenses and the remuneration, supply technological materials and original data, accomplish coordinating tasks and accept the result of research and development on time according to the terms of the contract.


Article 332 The party responsible for research and development shall, according to the terms of the contract, formulate and implement a research and development plan, use the research and development budget in a reasonable way, complete the research and development on time, deliver the achievement according to the schedule, provide relevant technological materials and necessary technical guidance and assist the commissioning party in mastering the achievement of the research and development.


Article 333 Where the commissioning party violates the contract and causes a standstill, delay or failure in the research and development work, such party shall be liable for the breach of contract.


Article 334 Where the party responsible for research and development violates the contract and causes a standstill, delay or failure in the research and development work, such party shall be liable for the breach of contract.


Article 335 Parties to a cooperative development contract shall, make the investment according to the terms of the contract including making investment by way of technology contribution, taking part in the research and development in light of the division of labor according to the terms of the contract, and cooperating with other parties to the contract in the research and development work.


Article 336 Where a party to a cooperative development contract violates the contract and causes a standstill, delay or failure in the research and development work, such party shall be liable for the breach of contract.


Article 337 Where the targeted technology in a technology development contract has been made public by others, which makes the performance of this technology development contract meaningless, the parties may rescind the contract.


Article 338 The liability for risks involved in a failure or partial failure in the research and development resulting from insurmountable technical difficulties occurring in the process of performing a technology development contract shall be agreed upon by the parties to the contract. In the absence of such an agreement in the contract or in case of ambiguity of such agreement, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, such risk liability shall be shared reasonablely by the parties.
Where one party discovers that the situation stipulated in the preceding paragraph is likely to result in a failure or partial failure in the research and development, the party shall promptly inform the other party of the situation and take appropriate measures to reduce losses. Where the party fails in making the notice and taking appropriate measures, and thus enlarging the losses, it shall be liable for the enlarged losses.


Article 339 With respect to inventions and creations achieved in the performance of a commissioned development, the right to apply for a patent belongs to the party that undertakes the research and development, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties. Where the party that undertakes the research and development is granted a patent right, the commissioning party may exploit the patent for free.
Where the party undertaking the research and development transfers the right to apply for a patent, the commissioning party shall have the right to priority in acquiring such right on equal conditions.


Article 340 With respect to inventions and creations in cooperative development, the right to apply for a patent shall be jointly owned by the parties who participated in the cooperative development, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties. Where one party transfers its part of the jointly owned right to apply for a patent, the other party or parties may have the right to priority in acquiring such right on equal conditions.
Where one party to the cooperative development contract declares that it renounces its part of the shared right to apply for a patent, the other party may apply for it alone or the other parties may apply for it jointly. Where a patent is granted to the applicant, the party that renounced its right to apply for a patent may exploit the patent for free.
Where one party to a cooperative development contract does not agree to apply for a patent, the other party or parties may not apply for it.


Article 341 The right to use or to transfer the know-how achieved in the commissioned development or cooperative development, and the method of distributing the proceeds derived shall be agreed upon by the parties in the contract. In the absence of such agreement or in case of ambiguity of such agreement, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this law, either party has the right to use and transfer it. However, the party undertaking the research and development under a commissioned development contract may not transfer the result of the research and development to a third party before delivering them to the commissioning party.


SECTION 3 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER


Article 342 Technology transfer contracts include contracts on patent transfer, contracts on transfer of the right to apply for a patent, contracts on transfer of know-how and contracts on the licensing of patent exploitation.
A technology transfer contract shall be in written form.


Article 343 The scope of the exploitation of a patent or the use of the know-how by the transferor and the transferee may be agreed upon in a technology transfer contract provided that no restriction may be imposed on technological competition and technological development.


Article 344 A contract for the licensing of patent exploitation shall be valid only within the valid period of the patent right. Once the patent right expires or it is declared as invalid, the patentee may not conclude any contract with others for licensing of the exploitation of the said patent.


Article 345 The transferor of a patent exploitation licensing contract shall, according to the terms of the contract, permit the transferee to exploit the patent, submit the technological materials relevant to the exploitation of the patent and provide necessary technical guidance.


Article 346 The transferee of a patent exploitation licensing contract shall exploit the patent according to the terms of the contract, and may not permit any third party other than as provided for in the contract to exploit such patent, and shall pay the royalties according to the terms of the contract.


Article 347 The transferor of a know-how transfer contract shall, as agreed upon in the contract, supply technolgical materials, conduct technical guidance and ensure the practical applicability and reliability of the know-how as well as undertake the obligation of maintaining confidentiality.


Article 348 The transferee of a know-how transfer contract shall use the know-how, pay the royalties and undertake the obligation of maintaining confidentiality according to the terms of the contract.


Article 349 The transferor of a technology transfer contract shall guarantee that he/she is the lawful owner of the supplied technology and that the supplied technology is complete, without mistakes, effective and able to accomplish the agreed goal.


Article 350 The transferee of a technology transfer contract shall, in conformity with the scope and the time period as agreed upon in the contract, assume the obligation of maintaining confidentiality for the undisclosed part of the technology supplied by the transferor.


Article 351 A transferor failing to transfer the technology according to the terms of the contract, shall return part or total of the royalties and be liable for the breach of contract. The party exploiting the patent or know-how exceeding the agreed scope, or unilaterally permit a third party to exploit the patent or use the know-how in violation of the contract, shall cease the act of breach of contract and be liable for the breach of contract. A party violating the agreed obligation of maintaining confidentiality shall be liable for the breach of contract.


Article 352 A transferee failing to pay the royalties according to the terms of the contract shall, make up such payment and pay the breach of contract damages as agreed upon. The transferee refusing to pay the overdue royalties or the breach of contract damages, shall cease the exploitation of the patent or the use of the know-how, return the technological materials and be liable for the breach of contract. A transferee exploiting the patent or using the know-how in a way exceeding the scope as agreed upon in the contract, or permitting a third party to exploit the patent or use the know-how without the consent of the transferor, shall cease the act of breach of contract and be liable for the breach of contract. A transferee violating the agreed obligation for maintaining confidentiality shall be liable for the breach of contract.


Article 353 Where the exploitation of a patent or the use of know-how by a transferee in accordance with the terms of the contract infringes upon the legitimate rights and interests of others, the transferor shall be liable, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 354 The parties may stipulate in a technology transfer contract, the method of sharing technological achievements obtained from the follow-up improvements made in the exploitation of a patent or the use of know-how in light of the principle of mutual benefit. Where there is no such agreement in the contract or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the other parties shall have no right to share the technological achievements made by one party in the follow-up improvement.


Article 355 Where the laws and administrative regulations stipulate otherwise on the technology import and export contracts, or patent contracts or contracts on application for patents, such provisions shall be followed.


SECTION 4 CONTRACTS FOR TECHNICAL CONSULTANCY AND TECHNICAL SERVICE


Article 356 Technical consultancy contracts include contracts whereby feasibility studies, technological forecasts, technical investigations and analytical evaluation reports shall be provided in respect of specific projects.
Technical service contracts refer to contracts whereby one party undertakes to solve specific technical problems by using its technical expertise for the other party, excluding contracts for construction projects and contracts for work.


Article 357 The commissioning party of a technical consultancy contract shall, as agreed upon in the contract, state clearly the questions raised for consultancy, supply technological background information and relevant technical materials and data, accept from the commissioned party the result of its work and pay the remuneration.


Article 358 The commissioned party of a technical consultancy contract shall complete the consultancy report or answer the questions raised by the commissioning party according to the agreed time limit. The consultancy report thus submitted shall meet the requirements as agreed upon in the contract.


Article 359 Where the commissioning party of a technical consultancy contract fails to supply the necessary materials and data according to the terms of the contract which consequently affects the progress and quality of the consultancy work, or does not accept the result of the work or accepts it beyond the time limit, the remuneration already paid may not be refunded, and the remuneration unpaid shall be paid in due amount.
Where the commissioned party of a technical consultancy contract fails to submit the consultancy report on time or the report thus submitted does not meet the requirements as agreed upon in the contract, the said party shall bear such Liabilities for breach of contract as reducing or waiving the remuneration, etc.
The losses resulting from decisions made by the commissioning party of a technical consultancy contract on the basis of the consultancy report and of the advice of the commissioned party that meet the requirements as agreed upon in the contract shall be borne by the commissioning party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties in the contract.


Article 360 The commissioning party of a technical service contract shall supply the work facilities and accomplish cooperative undertakings according to the terms of the contract, and accept the result of the work and pay the remuneration.

Article 361 The commissioned party of a technical service contract shall complete the services, solve the technical problems, guarantee the quality of its work and convey to the other party the knowledge on the solving of technical problems according to the terms of the contract.

Article 362 Where the commissioning party of a technical service contract fails to perform the contract or the performance is not in conformity with the terms of the contract, which consequently affects the progress and the quality of the work, or does not accept the result of the work or accepts it beyond the time limit, the remuneration already paid may not be refunded, and the remuneration unpaid shall be paid in due amount.
Where the commissioned party fails to complete the service work in conformity with the terms of the contract, the said party shall bear such liabilities for breach of contract as waiving the remuneration, etc.

Article 363 Any new technological achievement accomplished by the commissioned party in the performance of a technical consultancy contract or a technical service contract using the technological materials and work facilities supplied by the commissioning party, shall belong to the commissioned party, while any new technological achievement accomplished by the commissioning party using the results of the work of the commissioned party, shall belong to the commissioning party, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties in the contract.

Article 364 Where the laws and regulations stipulate otherwise on technical intermediation contracts and technical training contracts, such provisions shall be followed.


Article 365 A storage contract refers to a contract whereby the safekeeping party keeps in store the article handed over by the storing party, and returns the said article.


Article 366 The storing party shall, according to the terms of the contract, pay to the safekeeping party the storage fee.
Where there is no agreement in the contract regarding the storage fee, or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the storage shall be for free.


Article 367 A storage contract is established at the time when the article to be stored is handed over, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 368 When the storing party hands over the article to be stored to the safekeeping party, the safekeeping party shall issue a storage certificate, except as otherwise practised in transactions.


Article 369 The safekeeping party shall keep in appropriate store the articles to be stored.


The parties may agree on the site or method of storage. The site or method of storage may not be unilaterally changed except in case of emergency or for the purpose of protecting the interests of the storing party.


Article 370 Where an article handed over by the storing party for storage has defects, or special measures need to be taken due to the character of the article, the storing party shall inform the safekeeping party of such macters. Where the storing party fails to inform the safekeeping party of such macters and consequently causes damage to the stored article, the safekeeping party shall not be liable for damages. Where the safekeeping party suffers losses therefrom as a consequence, the storing party shall be liable for damages, except in the event the safekeeping party knows the situation or ought to know it but fails to take any remedial measures.


Article 371 The safekeeping party may not turn the article to be stored over to a third party for storage, execpt as otherwise agreed upon by the parties in the contract.


Where the safekeeping party violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph and turns the article to be stored over to a third party for storage, thus causing damage to the article, the said party shall be liable for damages.


Article 372 The safekeeping party may not use or permit a third party to use the stored article, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 373 Where a third party claims rights on the stored article, the safekeeping party shall perform the obligation to return the article to the storing party, except that a preservative measure or executive measure is taken according to law with regard to the stored article.


Where a third party brings a lawsuit against the safekeeping party or applies for a seizure by the stored article, the safekeeping party shall promptly inform the storing party of the case.


Article 374 Where during the period of storage, the stored article is damaged, destroyed or lost due to improper storage by the safekeeping party, the safekeeping party shall be liable for damages. However, where the storage is provided for free, and the safekeeping party proves that it has not acted with gross fault, it shall not be liable for damages.


Article 375 A storing party depositing currency, securities or other precious articles shall, declare the case to the safekeeping party, and the safekeeping party shall inspect and seal up the article for storage. Where the storing party fails to declare as such and the article is damaged, destroyed or lost afterwards, the safekeeping party may compensate for it as it is an ordinary article.


Article 376 A storing party may claim and get back the stored article at any time.


Where there is no agreement between the parties in the contract as to the time period of the storage, the safekeeping party may request the storing party to get back the stored article at any time. Where there is such agreement on the time period of the storage, the safekeeping party may not request the storing party to get back the stored article before the time period expires without special causes.


Article 377 On the expiry of the storage time period or when the storing party claims and gets back the article before the expiry, the safekeeping party shall return to the storing party the original article and the fruits generated therefrom.


Article 378 A safekeeping party keeping in store currency may return the currency of the same kind and in the same amount. In case of storing other replaceable articles, the safekeeping party may return to the storing party articles of the same category, quality and quantity according to the terms of the contract.


Article 379 With regard to non-gratuitous storage contracts, the storing party shall pay to the safekeeping party the storage fee according to the time limit as agreed upon by the parties.


Where there is no agreement as to the time limit for the payment in the contract or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the storage fee shall be paid at the same time when the stored article is claimed and taken back.


Article 380 Where a storing party fails to pay the storage fee and other expenses according to the terms of the contract, the safekeeping party is entitled to lien on the stored article, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


CHAPTER 20 CONTRACTS FOR WAREHOUSING


Article 381 A warehousing contract refers to a contract whereby the safekeeping party keeps in store the goods handed over by the storing party, while the storing party pays the warehousing fee.


Article 382 A warehousing contract comes into effect at the time of its establishment.


Article 383 Where inflammable, explosive, poisonous, corrosive, radioactive and other dangerous or perishable articles are to be kept in store, the storing party shall indicate the character of the goods and provide relevant documents and materials thereof.


Where a storing party violates the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the safekeeping party may refuse to receive the goods, or may take appropriate measures to avoid losses. The cost consequently incurred shall be borne by the storing party.


The safekeeping party shall have appropriate safekeeping facilities for the storage of inflammable, explosive, poisonous, corrosive, radioactive and other dangerous articles.


Article 384 The safekeeping party shall inspect, before letting in, the warehousing goods in conformity with the terms of the contract. A safekeeping party discovering in the inspection that the goods are not in conformity with the terms of the contract shall, inform the storing party of the case promptly. After the inspection and acceptance by the safekeeping party, the safekeeping party shall be liable for damages if it is discovered that the category, quantity or quality of the warehousing goods are not in conformity with the terms of the contract.


Article 385 Upon handing over the goods by the storing party, the safekeeping party shall issue a warehouse voucher.


Article 386 The safekeeping party shall sign on the warehouse voucher or affix a seal on it. A warehouse voucher shall contain the following items:

(1) title or name and domicile of the storing party;

(2) category, quantity, quality, package, number of pieces and marks of the warehousing goods;

(3) standards of spoilage of the warehousing goods;

(4) place of storage;

(5) time period of storage;

(6) warehousing fee;

(7) where the warehousing goods have been insured, the amount and time period of the insurance and the title of the insurance company; and

(8) name of the person who issues the warehouse voucher, the place and the date of issuance.


Article 387 A warehouse voucher is the certificate for claiming the warehousing goods. The right to claim the warehousing goods may be transferred when the warehouse voucher is endorsed by the storing party or the person who holds the warehouse voucher, and signed or affixed with a seal by the safekeeping party.


Article 388 At the request of the storing party or the person who holds the warehouse voucher, the safekeeping party shall permit the person to check the warehousing goods or take samples.


Article 389 In the event that the safekeeping party discovers that the warehousing goods are deteriorated or otherwise damaged, the said party shall inform the storing party or the holder of the warehouse voucher of the case promptly.


Article 390 In the event that the safekeeping party discovers that the letting in warehousing goods are deteriorated or otherwise damaged, thus endangering the safety and the normal storage of other warehousing goods, the said party shall notify and urge the storing party or the holder of the warehouse voucher to make necessary disposal. In case of emergency, the safekeeping party may make the necessary disposal, but shall inform the storing party or the holder of the warehouse voucher of the case promptly afterwards.


Article 391 Where there is no agreement in the contract between the parties as to the time period of the storage or such agreement is unclear, the storing party or the person who holds the warehouse voucher may claim and get back the warehousing goods at any time, the safekeeping party may also at any time request the storing party to claim the warehousing goods, provided that a time period necessary for preparation shall be given.


Article 392 When the storage time period expires, the storing party or the holder of the warehouse voucher shall claim and get back the warehousing goods. Where the storing party or the holder of the warehouse voucher fails to claim the goods on time, additional warehouse fee shall be paid. Where the goods are claimed before the time period expires, the warehouse storage fee shall not be reduced.


Article 393 Where the storing party or the holder of the warehouse voucher does not claim the warehoused goods when the time period expires, the safekeeping party may urge the holder to claim the goods within a reasonable time period. After this additional time period expires, the safekeeping party may have the goods deposited.


Article 394 If, during the time period of storage, the warehousing goods are damaged, destroyed or lost due to improper storage by the safekeeping party, the safekeeping party shall be liable for damages. Where the warehousing goods are perished or damaged due to inconformity of the character of the warehousing goods or of the packing with the terms of the contract, or the fact that the goods exceed the valid storage period, the safekeeping party shall not be liable.


Article 395 Matters not addressed in this Chapter shall apply, the relevant provisions governing storage contracts.


CHAPTER 21 CONTRACTS FOR COMMISSION


Article 396 A commission contract refers to a contract whereby the principal and the agent agree that the agent shall handle the maters of the principal.


Article 397 A principal may specially entrust an agent to handle one or several items of matters, or generally entrust the agent to handle all matters.


Article 398 The principal shall pay the expenses for handling the entrusted matters in advance. In case that the agent has prepaid the necessary expenses for handling the entrusted matters, the principal shall reimburse the expenses and the interest thereof.


Article 399 The agent shall handle the entrusted matters according to the instruction of the principal. Where the instruction of the principal need to be modified, consent of the principal shall be obtained; in case of such emergency that it is difficult to contact the principal, the agent shall handle the entrusted matters properly and report to the principal the case promptly afterwards.


Article 400 The agent shall handle the entrusted matters himself/herself. With the consent of the principal, the agent may sub- entrust the matter. If the sub-entrustment has obtained consent, the principal may directly give instructions to the sub-entrusted third party, and the agent shall be liable only for the selection of the third party and his own instructions to the third party. If the sub- entrustment has not obtained the consent, the agent shall be liable for the third party's acts, except that in an emergency the sub-entrustment is necessary for the protection of the interests of the principal.


Article 401 The agent shall report the handling of the entrusted matters according to the requirements of the principal. The agent shall report the result of the entrusted matters when the commission contract is terminated.


Article 402 If within the scope of the power delegated by the principal, the agent, in his/her own name, concludes a contract with a third party, and the third party knows the proxy relationship between the agent and principal at the time of concluding the contract, the contract shall directly bind the principal and the third party, unless there are conclusive evidences to prove that the said contract only binds the agent and the third party.


Article 403 When an agent concludes a contract in his/her own name with a third party, and the third party does not know the proxy relationship between the agent and principal, and if the agent does not perform the obligation in respect of the principal due to causes of the third party, the agent shall disclose the third party to the principal. The principal hence may exercise the agent's rights against the third party, except that the third party will not conclude the contract with the agent if he knows the principal at the time of concluding the contract.
If the agent does not perform the obligations in respect of the third party due to causes of the principal, the agent shall disclose the principal to the third party. The third party hence may choose the agent or the principal as the counterpart to claim its rights, but the third party may not change the chosen counterpart.
Where the principal exercise the agent's rights against the third party, the third party may claim its demur in respect of the agent against the principal. Where the third party chooses the principal as its counterpart, the principal may claim its demur in respect of the agent as well as the demur of the agent in respect of the third party against the third party.


Article 404 The agent shall hand over to the principal the property obtained from handling the entrusted matters.


Article 405 When the agent has finished the entrusted matters, the principal shall pay remuneration to it. If, due to causes not attributable to the agent, the commission contract is rescinded or the entrusted matters cannot be finished, the principal shall pay the agent corresponding remuneration. If otherwise agreed upon in the contract, the terms of the contract shall be applied.


Article 406 In respect of a non-gratuitous commission contract, where the principal suffers from losses due to the fault of the agent, the principal may claim compensation for the losses. In respect of a gratuitous commission contract, where the principal suffers from losses due to the deliberate intention or gross fault of the agent, the principal may claim compensation for the losses.
Where the agent is ultra vires and causes losses to the principal, the agent shall compensate for the losses.

Article 407 If, in handling the entrusted matters, the agent suffers from losses due to causes not attributable to its own, the agent may request the principal to compensate for the losses.


Article 408 With the consent of the agent, the principal may entrust a third party other than the agent to handle the entrusted matters. In respect of losses thus incurred to the agent, the agent may request the principal to compensate for the losses.


Article 409 Where two or more agents jointly handle the entrusted matters, they shall assume joint and several liabilities to the principal.


Article 410 The principal or agent may rescind the commission contract at any time. The party who causes losses to the other party Due to the rescission of the commission contract shall, compensate for the losses, except for causes not attributable to the said party.


Article 411 A commission contract shall be terminated when the decease of the principal or agent occurs, or the principal or agent loses civil capacity of conduct or goes into bankrupcy, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties in the contract or except that it is inappropriate to terminate the contract according to the characters of the entrusted matters.


Article 412 If the termination of a commission contract due to the principal's decease, loss of civil capacity of conduct or bankruptcy will harm the principal's interests, the agent shall continue to handle the entrusted matters before the principal's heir, statutory agent or liquidation group take over these matters.


Article 413 If a commission contract is terminated due to the agent's decease, loss of civil capacity of conduct or bankruptcy, the agent's heir, statutory agent or liquidation group shall notify the principal promptly. If the termination of the commission contract will harm the principal's interests, the agent's heir, statutory agent or liquidation group shall take necessary measures before the principal makes appropriate arrangements in dealing with the situation.


CHAPTER 22 CONTRACTS FOR BROKERAGE


Article 414 A brokerage contract refers to a contract whereby the broker is, in his/her own name, engaged in trade activities for the benefit of the principal, and the principal pays the remuneration.


Article 415 The expenses of the broker occurred in handling the entrusted matters shall be borne by the broker except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties in the contract.


Article 416 When possessing the entrusted articles, the broker shall keep in appropriate store the said articles.


Article 417 If the entrusted articles have defects or are perishable or deteriorative when they are delivered to the broker, the broker may dispose of these articles with the consent of the principal. Where the principal cannot be contacted in time, the broker may dispose of these articles in a reasonable manner.


Article 418 Where the broker sells at a lower price or buys at a higher price than the price fixed by the principal, consent shall be obtained from the principal. Without the principal's consent, the transaction shall be effective to the principal if the broker makes up the price difference.
Where the broker sells at a higher price or buys at a lower price than the price fixed by the principal, remuneration may be raised according to the terms of the contract. Where there is no such agreement in the contract or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the benefits shall belong to the principal.
Where the principal has special instructions on price, the broker may not buy or sell violating these instructions.


Article 419 When selling or buying commodities of market fixed price, the broker may act as a buyer or seller, unless the principal expresses oppositely.
The broker may still request the principal under the circumstances stipulated in the preceding paragraph to pay the remuneration.

Article 420 Where the broker buys in the entrusted articles according to the terms of the contract, the principal shall accept the said articles in time. If, after the broker's urging with a notice, the principal refuses to accept the articles without justified reasons, the broker may deposit the entrusted articles according to the provisions of Article 101 of this Law.
If the entrusted articles cannot be sold out or the principal revokes the sale, and the principal does not take back or dispose of the goods after the broker's urging with a notice, the broker may have the entrusted articles deposited according to the provisions of Article 101 of this law.

Article 421 Where a contract is concluded between a broker and a third party, the broker shall directly have the rights and assume obligations under the contract.
If the third party fails in performing its obligations and causes losses to the principal, the broker shall be liable for damages, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.


Article 422 The principal shall pay to the broker corresponding remuneration when the broker has finished the whole or part of the entrusted matters. Where the principal fails to pay the remuneration in due time, the broker shall have the right to lien on the entrusted articles, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.

Article 423 Matters not addressed in this Chapter shall apply the relevant provisions governing commission contracts.


CHAPTER 23 CONTRACTS FOR INTERMEDIATION


Article 424 An intermediation contract refers to a contract whereby the intermediator reports to the principal the opportunity for concluding a contract or provides intermediate service for concluding a contract, and the principal pays the remuneration.


Article 425 The intermediator shall report truthfully to the principal the matters related to the conclusion of a contract.
Where the intermediator intentionally conceals the important facts relating to the conclusion of the contract or provides false information and harms the interests of the principal, the said party may not claim the payment of remuneration and shall be liable for damages.


Article 426 The principal shall pay the intermediator remuneration according to the terms of the contract if the intermediator has facilitated the establishment of the contract. Where there is no such agreement in the contract on remuneration or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined according to the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the remuneration shall be determined reasonably according to the service rendered by the intermediator. If the establishment of a contract has been facilitated by the intermediate service rendered by the intermediator, the remuneration shall be borne equally by the parties to the contract.
Where the intermediator has facilitated the conclusion of the contract, the expenses for the intermediate service shall be borne by the intermediator.


Article 427 Where the intermediator fails in facilitating the conclusion of a contract, the intermediator may not request for the payment of remuneration, but may request the principal to pay the necessary expenses for the intermediate service.


Article 428 This Law shall come into force as of October 1st, 1999. The Economic Contract Law of the People's Republic of China, the Law of the People's Republic of China on Economic Contracts Involving Foreign Interests and the Law of the People's Republic of China on Technology Contracts shall be invalidated simultaneously.





中华人民共和国合同法

(1999年3月15日第九届人大会二次会议通过
国家主席令第十五号公布)

│目录(书签查找)

│总 则

│第一章 一般规定
│第二章 合同的订立
│第三章 合同的效力
│第四章 合同的履行
│第五章 合同的变更和转让
│第六章 合同的权利义务终止
│第七章 违约责任
│第八章 其他规定

│分 则

│第九章 买卖合同
│第十章 供电、水、气、热力合同
│第十一章 赠与合同
│第十二章 借款合同
│第十三章 租赁合同
│第十四章 融资租赁合同
│第十五章 承揽合同
│第十六章 建设工程合同
│第十七章 运输合同
│第十八章 技术合同
│第十九章 保管合同
│第二十章 仓储合同
│第二十一章 委托合同
│第二十二章 行纪合同
│第二十三章 居间合同

│附 则


总 则


第一章 一般规定

第一条 为了保护合同当事人的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,促进社会主义现代化建设,
制定本法。

第二条 本法所称合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事
权利义务关系的协议。

婚姻、收养、监护等有关身份关系的协议,适用其他法律的规定。

第三条 合同当事人的法律地位平等,一方不得将自己的意志强加给另一方。

第四条 当事人依法享有自愿订立合同的权利,任何单位和个人不得非法干预。

第五条 当事人应当遵循公平原则确定各方的权利和义务。

第六条 当事人行使权利、履行义务应当遵循诚实信用原则。

第七条 当事人订立、履行合同,应当遵守法律、行政法规,尊重社会公德,不得扰乱社
会经济秩序,损害社会公共利益。

第八条 依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。当事人应当按照约定履行自己的义
务,不得擅自变更或者解除合同。

依法成立的合同,受法律保护。


第二章 合同的订立

第九条 当事人订立合同,应当具有相应的民事权利能力和民事行为能力。

当事人依法可以委托代理人订立合同。

第十条 当事人订立合同,有书面形式、口头形式和其他形式。

法律、行政法规规定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。当事人约定采用书面形式的,
应当采用书面形式。

第十一条 书面形式是指合同书、信件和数据电文(包括电报、电传、传真、电子数据交
换和电子邮件)等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。

第十二条 合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括以下条款:

(一)当事人的名称或者姓名和住所;

(二)标的;

(三)数量;

(四)质量;

(五)价款或者报酬;

(六)履行期限、地点和方式;

(七)违约责任;

(八)解决争议的方法。

当事人可以参照各类合同的示范文本订立合同。

第十三条 当事人订立合同,采取要约、承诺方式。

第十四条 要约是希望和他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列规定:

(一)内容具体确定;

(二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。

第十五条 要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的意思表示。寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、
招标公告、招股说明书、商业广告等为要约邀请。

商业广告的内容符合要约规定的,视为要约。

第十六条 要约到达受要约人时生效。

采用数据电文形式订立合同,收件人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该
特定系统的时间,视为到达时间;未指定特定系统的,该数据电文进入收件人的任何系
统的首次时间,视为到达时间。

第十七条 要约可以撤回。撤回要约的通知应当在要约到达受要约人之前或者与要约同时
到达受要约人。

第十八条 要约可以撤销。撤销要约的通知应当在受要约人发出承诺通知之前到达受要约
人。

第十九条 有下列情形之一的,要约不得撤销:

(一)要约人确定了承诺期限或者以其他形式明示要约不可撤销;

(二)受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同作了准备工作。

第二十条 有下列情形之一的,要约失效:

(一)拒绝要约的通知到达要约人;

(二)要约人依法撤销要约;

(三)承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺;

(四)受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更。

第二十一条 承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。

第二十二条 承诺应当以通知的方式作出,但根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作
出承诺的除外。

第二十三条 承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。

要约没有确定承诺期限的,承诺应当依照下列规定到达:

(一)要约以对话方式作出的,应当即时作出承诺,但当事人另有约定的除外;

(二)要约以非对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。

第二十四条 要约以信件或者电报作出的,承诺期限自信件载明的日期或者电报交发之日
开始计算。信件未载明日期的,自投寄该信件的邮戳日期开始计算。要约以电话、传真
等快速通讯方式作出的,承诺期限自要约到达受要约人时开始计算。

第二十五条 承诺生效时合同成立。

第二十六条 承诺通知到达要约人时生效。承诺不需要通知的,根据交易习惯或者要约的
要求作出承诺的行为时生效。

采用数据电文形式订立合同的,承诺到达的时间适用本法第十六条第二款的规定。

第二十七条 承诺可以撤回。撤回承诺的通知应当在承诺通知到达要约人之前或者与承诺
通知同时到达要约人。

第二十八条 受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺的,除要约人及时通知受要约人该承诺有效
的以外,为新要约。

第二十九条 受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但因
其他原因承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期
限不接受该承诺的以外,该承诺有效。

第三十条 承诺的内容应当与要约的内容一致。受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更的,
为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或者报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、
违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。

第三十一条 承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时表示反对或者要约表
明承诺不得对要约的内容作出任何变更的以外,该承诺有效,合同的内容以承诺的内容
为准。

第三十二条 当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,自双方当事人签字或者盖章时合同成立。

第三十三条 当事人采用信件、数据电文等形式订立合同的,可以在合同成立之前要求签
订确认书。签订确认书时合同成立。

第三十四条 承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。

采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业地的,
其经常居住地为合同成立的地点。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

第三十五条 当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,双方当事人签字或者盖章的地点为合同
成立的地点。

第三十六条 法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用书面形式订立合同,当事人未采用
书面形式但一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。

第三十七条 采用合同书形式订立合同,在签字或者盖章之前,当事人一方已经履行主要
义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。

第三十八条 国家根据需要下达指令性任务或者国家订货任务的,有关法人、其他组织之
间应当依照有关法律、行政法规规定的权利和义务订立合同。

第三十九条 采用格式条款订立合同的,提供格式条款的一方应当遵循公平原则确定当事
人之间的权利和义务,并采取合理的方式提请对方注意免除或者限制其责任的条款,按
照对方的要求,对该条款予以说明。

格式条款是当事人为了重复使用而预先拟定,并在订立合同时未与对方协商的条款。

第四十条 格式条款具有本法第五十二条和第五十三条规定情形的,或者提供格式条款一
方免除其责任、加重对方责任、排除对方主要权利的,该条款无效。

第四十一条 对格式条款的理解发生争议的,应当按照通常理解予以解释。对格式条款有
两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释。格式条款和非格式条款不
一致的,应当采用非格式条款。

第四十二条 当事人在订立合同过程中有下列情形之一,给对方造成损失的,应当承担损
害赔偿责任:

(一)假借订立合同,恶意进行磋商;

(二)故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况;

(三)有其他违背诚实信用原则的行为。

第四十三条 当事人在订立合同过程中知悉的商业秘密,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或
者不正当地使用。泄露或者不正当地使用该商业秘密给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害
赔偿责任。


第三章 合同的效力

第四十四条 依法成立的合同,自成立时生效。

法律、行政法规规定应当办理批准、登记等手续生效的,依照其规定。

第四十五条 当事人对合同的效力可以约定附条件。附生效条件的合同,自条件成就时生
效。附解除条件的合同,自条件成就时失效。

当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成
就的,视为条件不成就。

第四十六条 当事人对合同的效力可以约定附期限。附生效期限的合同,自期限届至时生
效。附终止期限的合同,自期限届满时失效。

第四十七条 限制民事行为能力人订立的合同,经法定代理人追认后,该合同有效,但纯
获利益的合同或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应而订立的合同,不必经法定代
理人追认。

相对人可以催告法定代理人在一个月内予以追认。法定代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追
认。合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。

第四十八条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立的合
同,未经被代理人追认,对被代理人不发生效力,由行为人承担责任。

相对人可以催告被代理人在一个月内予以追认。被代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。
合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。

第四十九条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立合同,
相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,该代理行为有效。

第五十条 法人或者其他组织的法定代表人、负责人超越权限订立的合同,除相对人知道
或者应当知道其超越权限的以外,该代表行为有效。

第五十一条 无处分权的人处分他人财产,经权利人追认或者无处分权的人订立合同后取
得处分权的,该合同有效。

第五十二条 有下列情形之一的,合同无效:

(一)一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段订立合同,损害国家利益;

(二)恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益;

(三)以合法形式掩盖非法目的;

(四)损害社会公共利益;

(五)违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定。

第五十三条 合同中的下列免责条款无效:

(一)造成对方人身伤害的;

(二)因故意或者重大过失造成对方财产损失的。

第五十四条 下列合同,当事人一方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销:

(一)因重大误解订立的;

(二)在订立合同时显失公平的。

一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段或者乘人之危,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下订立的合同,
受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销。

当事人请求变更的,人民法院或者仲裁机构不得撤销。

第五十五条 有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:

(一)具有撤销权的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内没有行使撤销权;

(二)具有撤销权的当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为放弃撤销权。

第五十六条 无效的合同或者被撤销的合同自始没有法律约束力。合同部分无效,不影响
其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。

第五十七条 合同无效、被撤销或者终止的,不影响合同中独立存在的有关解决争议方法
的条款的效力。

第五十八条 合同无效或者被撤销后,因该合同取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或
者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错的一方应当赔偿对方因此所受到的损失,双
方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。

第五十九条 当事人恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益的,因此取得的财产收归
国家所有或者返还集体、第三人。


第四章 合同的履行

第六十条 当事人应当按照约定全面履行自己的义务。

当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据合同的性质、目的和交易习惯履行通知、协助、保
密等义务。

第六十一条 合同生效后,当事人就质量、价款或者报酬、履行地点等内容没有约定或者
约定不明确的,可以协议补充;不能达成补充协议的,按照合同有关条款或者交易习惯
确定。

第六十二条 当事人就有关合同内容约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定
的,适用下列规定:

(一)质量要求不明确的,按照国家标准、行业标准履行;没有国家标准、行业标准的,
按照通常标准或者符合合同目的的特定标准履行。

(二)价款或者报酬不明确的,按照订立合同时履行地的市场价格履行;依法应当执行
政府定价或者政府指导价的,按照规定履行。

(三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受货币一方所在地履行;交付不动产的,在
不动产所在地履行;其他标的,在履行义务一方所在地履行。

(四)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时履行,债权人也可以随时要求履行,但应当
给对方必要的准备时间。

(五)履行方式不明确的,按照有利于实现合同目的的方式履行。

(六)履行费用的负担不明确的,由履行义务一方负担。

第六十三条 执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,在合同约定的交付期限内政府价格调整时,
按照交付时的价格计价。逾期交付标的物的,遇价格上涨时,按照原价格执行;价格下
降时,按照新价格执行。逾期提取标的物或者逾期付款的,遇价格上涨时,按照新价格
执行;价格下降时,按照原价格执行。

第六十四条 当事人约定由债务人向第三人履行债务的,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者
履行债务不符合约定,应当向债权人承担违约责任。

第六十五条 当事人约定由第三人向债权人履行债务的,第三人不履行债务或者履行债务
不符合约定,债务人应当向债权人承担违约责任。

第六十六条 当事人互负债务,没有先后履行顺序的,应当同时履行。一方在对方履行之
前有权拒绝其履行要求。一方在对方履行债务不符合约定时,有权拒绝其相应的履行要
求。

第六十七条 当事人互负债务,有先后履行顺序,先履行一方未履行的,后履行一方有权
拒绝其履行要求。先履行一方履行债务不符合约定的,后履行一方有权拒绝其相应的履
行要求。

第六十八条 应当先履行债务的当事人,有确切证据证明对方有下列情形之一的,可以中
止履行:

(一)经营状况严重恶化;

(二)转移财产、抽逃资金,以逃避债务;

(三)丧失商业信誉;

(四)有丧失或者可能丧失履行债务能力的其他情形。

当事人没有确切证据中止履行的,应当承担违约责任。

第六十九条 当事人依照本法第六十八条的规定中止履行的,应当及时通知对方。对方提
供适当担保时,应当恢复履行。中止履行后,对方在合理期限内未恢复履行能力并且未
提供适当担保的,中止履行的一方可以解除合同。

第七十条 债权人分立、合并或者变更住所没有通知债务人,致使履行债务发生困难的,
债务人可以中止履行或者将标的物提存。

第七十一条 债权人可以拒绝债务人提前履行债务,但提前履行不损害债权人利益的除外。

债务人提前履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。

第七十二条 债权人可以拒绝债务人部分履行债务,但部分履行不损害债权人利益的除外。

债务人部分履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。

第七十三条 因债务人怠于行使其到期债权,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以向人民法
院请求以自己的名义代位行使债务人的债权,但该债权专属于债务人自身的除外。

代位权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使代位权的必要费用,由债务人负担。

第七十四条 因债务人放弃其到期债权或者无偿转让财产,对债权人造成损害的,债权人
可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。债务人以明显不合理的低价转让财产,对债权人
造成损害,并且受让人知道该情形的,债权人也可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。

撤销权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使撤销权的必要费用,由债务人负担。

第七十五条 撤销权自债权人知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。自债务人的
行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,该撤销权消灭。

第七十六条 合同生效后,当事人不得因姓名、名称的变更或者法定代表人、负责人、承
办人的变动而不履行合同义务。


第五章 合同的变更和转让

第七十七条 当事人协商一致,可以变更合同。

法律、行政法规规定变更合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。

第七十八条 当事人对合同变更的内容约定不明确的,推定为未变更。

第七十九条 债权人可以将合同的权利全部或者部分转让给第三人,但有下列情形之一的
除外:

(一)根据合同性质不得转让;

(二)按照当事人约定不得转让;

(三)依照法律规定不得转让。

第八十条 债权人转让权利的,应当通知债务人。未经通知,该转让对债务人不发生效力。

债权人转让权利的通知不得撤销,但经受让人同意的除外。

第八十一条 债权人转让权利的,受让人取得与债权有关的从权利,但该从权利专属于债
权人自身的除外。

第八十二条 债务人接到债权转让通知后,债务人对让与人的抗辩,可以向受让人主张。

第八十三条 债务人接到债权转让通知时,债务人对让与人享有债权,并且债务人的债权
先于转让的债权到期或者同时到期的,债务人可以向受让人主张抵销。

第八十四条 债务人将合同的义务全部或者部分转移给第三人的,应当经债权人同意。

第八十五条 债务人转移义务的,新债务人可以主张原债务人对债权人的抗辩。

第八十六条 债务人转移义务的,新债务人应当承担与主债务有关的从债务,但该从债务
专属于原债务人自身的除外。

第八十七条 法律、行政法规规定转让权利或者转移义务应当办理批准、登记等手续的,
依照其规定。

第八十八条 当事人一方经对方同意,可以将自己在合同中的权利和义务一并转让给第三
人。

第八十九条 权利和义务一并转让的,适用本法第七十九条、第八十一条至第八十三
条、第八十五条至第八十七条的规定。

第九十条 当事人订立合同后合并的,由合并后的法人或者其他组织行使合同权利,履行
合同义务。当事人订立合同后分立的,除债权人和债务人另有约定的以外,由分立的法
人或者其他组织对合同的权利和义务享有连带债权,承担连带债务。


第六章 合同的权利义务终止

第九十一条 有下列情形之一的,合同的权利义务终止:

(一)债务已经按照约定履行;

(二)合同解除;

(三)债务相互抵销;

(四)债务人依法将标的物提存;

(五)债权人免除债务;

(六)债权债务同归于一人;

(七)法律规定或者当事人约定终止的其他情形。

第九十二条 合同的权利义务终止后,当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据交易习惯履行
通知、协助、保密等义务。

第九十三条 当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。

当事人可以约定一方解除合同的条件。解除合同的条件成就时,解除权人可以解除合同。

第九十四条 有下列情形之一的,当事人可以解除合同:

(一)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;

(二)在履行期限届满之前,当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行主要债
务;

(三)当事人一方迟延履行主要债务,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行;

(四)当事人一方迟延履行债务或者有其他违约行为致使不能实现合同目的;

(五)法律规定的其他情形。

第九十五条 法律规定或者当事人约定解除权行使期限,期限届满当事人不行使的,该权
利消灭。

法律没有规定或者当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,经对方催告后在合理期限内不行使
的,该权利消灭。

第九十六条 当事人一方依照本法第九十三条第二款、第九十四条的规
定主张解除合同的,应当通知对方。合同自通知到达对方时解除。对方有异议的,可以
请求人民法院或者仲裁机构确认解除合同的效力。

法律、行政法规规定解除合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。

第九十七条 合同解除后,尚未履行的,终止履行;已经履行的,根据履行情况和合同性
质,当事人可以要求恢复原状、采取其他补救措施,并有权要求赔偿损失。

第九十八条 合同的权利义务终止,不影响合同中结算和清理条款的效力。

第九十九条 当事人互负到期债务,该债务的标的物种类、品质相同的,任何一方可以将
自己的债务与对方的债务抵销,但依照法律规定或者按照合同性质不得抵销的除外。

当事人主张抵销的,应当通知对方。通知自到达对方时生效。抵销不得附条件或者附期
限。

第一百条 当事人互负债务,标的物种类、品质不相同的,经双方协商一致,也可以抵销。

第一百零一条 有下列情形之一,难以履行债务的,债务人可以将标的物提存:

(一)债权人无正当理由拒绝受领;

(二)债权人下落不明;

(三)债权人死亡未确定继承人或者丧失民事行为能力未确定监护人;

(四)法律规定的其他情形。

标的物不适于提存或者提存费用过高的,债务人依法可以拍卖或者变卖标的物,提存所
得的价款。

第一百零二条 标的物提存后,除债权人下落不明的以外,债务人应当及时通知债权人或
者债权人的继承人、监护人。

第一百零三条 标的物提存后,毁损、灭失的风险由债权人承担。提存期间,标的物的孳
息归债权人所有。提存费用由债权人负担。

第一百零四条 债权人可以随时领取提存物,但债权人对债务人负有到期债务的,在债权
人未履行债务或者提供担保之前,提存部门根据债务人的要求应当拒绝其领取提存物。

债权人领取提存物的权利,自提存之日起五年内不行使而消灭,提存物扣除提存费用后
归国家所有。

第一百零五条 债权人免除债务人部分或者全部债务的,合同的权利义务部分或者全部终
止。

第一百零六条 债权和债务同归于一人的,合同的权利义务终止,但涉及第三人利益
的除外。


第七章 违约责任

第一百零七条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,应当承担继
续履行、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任。

第一百零八条 当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行合同义务的,对方可以
在履行期限届满之前要求其承担违约责任。

第一百零九条 当事人一方未支付价款或者报酬的,对方可以要求其支付价款或者报酬。

第一百一十条 当事人一方不履行非金钱债务或者履行非金钱债务不符合约定的,对方可
以要求履行,但有下列情形之一的除外:

(一)法律上或者事实上不能履行;

(二)债务的标的不适于强制履行或者履行费用过高;

(三)债权人在合理期限内未要求履行。

第一百一十一条 质量不符合约定的,应当按照当事人的约定承担违约责任。对违约责任
没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,受损害方根据标
的的性质以及损失的大小,可以合理选择要求对方承担修理、更换、重作、退货、减少
价款或者报酬等违约责任。

第一百一十二条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,在履行义
务或者采取补救措施后,对方还有其他损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第一百一十三条 当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,给对方造成
损失的,损失赔偿额应当相当于因违约所造成的损失,包括合同履行后可以获得的利益,
但不得超过违反合同一方订立合同时预见到或者应当预见到的因违反合同可能造成的损
失。

经营者对消费者提供商品或者服务有欺诈行为的,依照《中华人民共和国消费者权益保
护法》的规定承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百一十四条 当事人可以约定一方违约时应当根据违约情况向对方支付一定数额的违
约金,也可以约定因违约产生的损失赔偿额的计算方法。

约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以增加;约
定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以适当减
少。

当事人就迟延履行约定违约金的,违约方支付违约金后,还应当履行债务。

第一百一十五条 当事人可以依照《中华人民共和国担保法》约定一方向对方给付定金作
为债权的担保。债务人履行债务后,定金应当抵作价款或者收回。给付定金的一方不履
行约定的债务的,无权要求返还定金;收受定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,应当双倍
返还定金。

第一百一十六条 当事人既约定违约金,又约定定金的,一方违约时,对方可以选择适用
违约金或者定金条款。

第一百一十七条 因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除
责任,但法律另有规定的除外。当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不能免除责任。

本法所称不可抗力,是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。

第一百一十八条 当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可
能给对方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。

第一百一十九条 当事人一方违约后,对方应当采取适当措施防止损失的扩大;没有采取
适当措施致使损失扩大的,不得就扩大的损失要求赔偿。

当事人因防止损失扩大而支出的合理费用,由违约方承担。

第一百二十条 当事人双方都违反合同的,应当各自承担相应的责任。

第一百二十一条 当事人一方因第三人的原因造成违约的,应当向对方承担违约责任。当
事人一方和第三人之间的纠纷,依照法律规定或者按照约定解决。

第一百二十二条 因当事人一方的违约行为,侵害对方人身、财产权益的,受损害方有权
选择依照本法要求其承担违约责任或者依照其他法律要求其承担侵权责任。


第八章 其他规定

第一百二十三条 其他法律对合同另有规定的,依照其规定。

第一百二十四条 本法分则或者其他法律没有明文规定的合同,适用本法总则的规定,并
可以参照本法分则或者其他法律最相类似的规定。

第一百二十五条 当事人对合同条款的理解有争议的,应当按照合同所使用的词句、合同
的有关条款、合同的目的、交易习惯以及诚实信用原则,确定该条款的真实意思。

合同文本采用两种以上文字订立并约定具有同等效力的,对各文本使用的词句推定具有
相同含义。各文本使用的词句不一致的,应当根据合同的目的予以解释。

第一百二十六条 涉外合同的当事人可以选择处理合同争议所适用的法律,但法律另有规
定的除外。涉外合同的当事人没有选择的,适用与合同有最密切联系的国家的法律。

在中华人民共和国境内履行的中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合
作勘探开发自然资源合同,适用中华人民共和国法律。

第一百二十七条 工商行政管理部门和其他有关行政主管部门在各自的职权范围内,依照
法律、行政法规的规定,对利用合同危害国家利益、社会公共利益的违法行为,负责监
督处理;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第一百二十八条 当事人可以通过和解或者调解解决合同争议。

当事人不愿和解、调解或者和解、调解不成的,可以根据仲裁协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁。
涉外合同的当事人可以根据仲裁协议向中国仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构申请仲裁。当事
人没有订立仲裁协议或者仲裁协议无效的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人应当履行发生
法律效力的判决、仲裁裁决、调解书;拒不履行的,对方可以请求人民法院执行。

第一百二十九条 因国际货物买卖合同和技术进出口合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期
限为四年,自当事人知道或者应当知道其权利受到侵害之日起计算。因其他合同争议提
起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期限,依照有关法律的规定。



分 则


第九章 买卖合同

第一百三十条 买卖合同是出卖人转移标的物的所有权于买受人,买受人支付价款的合同。

第一百三十一条 买卖合同的内容除依照本法第十二条的规定以外,还可以包括包装方式、
检验标准和方法、结算方式、合同使用的文字及其效力等条款。

第一百三十二条 出卖的标的物,应当属于出卖人所有或者出卖人有权处分。

法律、行政法规禁止或者限制转让的标的物,依照其规定。

第一百三十三条 标的物的所有权自标的物交付时起转移,但法律另有规定或者当事人另
有约定的除外。

第一百三十四条 当事人可以在买卖合同中约定买受人未履行支付价款或者其他义务的,
标的物的所有权属于出卖人。

第一百三十五条 出卖人应当履行向买受人交付标的物或者交付提取标的物的单证,并转
移标的物所有权的义务。

第一百三十六条 出卖人应当按照约定或者交易习惯向买受人交付提取标的物单证以外的
有关单证和资料。

第一百三十七条 出卖具有知识产权的计算机软件等标的物的,除法律另有规定或者当事
人另有约定的以外,该标的物的知识产权不属于买受人。

第一百三十八条 出卖人应当按照约定的期限交付标的物。约定交付期间的,出卖人可以
在该交付期间内的任何时间交付。

第一百三十九条 当事人没有约定标的物的交付期限或者约定不明确的,适用本法第六十
一条、第六十二条第四项的规定。

第一百四十条 标的物在订立合同之前已为买受人占有的,合同生效的时间为交付时间。

第一百四十一条 出卖人应当按照约定的地点交付标的物。

当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,
适用下列规定:

(一)标的物需要运输的,出卖人应当将标的物交付给第一承运人以运交给买受人;

(二)标的物不需要运输,出卖人和买受人订立合同时知道标的物在某一地点的,出卖
人应当在该地点交付标的物;不知道标的物在某一地点的,应当在出卖人订立合同时的
营业地交付标的物。

第一百四十二条 标的物毁损、灭失的风险,在标的物交付之前由出卖人承担,交付之后
由买受人承担,但法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

第一百四十三条 因买受人的原因致使标的物不能按照约定的期限交付的,买受人应当自
违反约定之日起承担标的物毁损、灭失的风险。

第一百四十四条 出卖人出卖交由承运人运输的在途标的物,除当事人另有约定的以外,
毁损、灭失的风险自合同成立时起由买受人承担。

第一百四十五条 当事人没有约定交付地点或者约定不明确,依照本法第一百四十一条第
二款第一项的规定标的物需要运输的,出卖人将标的物交付给第一承运人后,标的物毁
损、灭失的风险由买受人承担。

第一百四十六条 出卖人按照约定或者依照本法第一百四十一条第二款第二项的规定将标
的物置于交付地点,买受人违反约定没有收取的,标的物毁损、灭失的风险自违反约定
之日起由买受人承担。

第一百四十七条 出卖人按照约定未交付有关标的物的单证和资料的,不影响标的物毁损、
灭失风险的转移。

第一百四十八条 因标的物质量不符合质量要求,致使不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以
拒绝接受标的物或者解除合同。买受人拒绝接受标的物或者解除合同的,标的物毁损、
灭失的风险由出卖人承担。

第一百四十九条 标的物毁损、灭失的风险由买受人承担的,不影响因出卖人履行债务不
符合约定,买受人要求其承担违约责任的权利。

第一百五十条 出卖人就交付的标的物,负有保证第三人不得向买受人主张任何权利的义
务,但法律另有规定的除外。

第一百五十一条 买受人订立合同时知道或者应当知道第三人对买卖的标的物享有权利的,
出卖人不承担本法第一百五十条规定的义务。

第一百五十二条 买受人有确切证据证明第三人可能就标的物主张权利的,可以中止支付
相应的价款,但出卖人提供适当担保的除外。

第一百五十三条 出卖人应当按照约定的质量要求交付标的物。出卖人提供有关标的物质
量说明的,交付的标的物应当符合该说明的质量要求。

第一百五十四条 当事人对标的物的质量要求没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十
一条的规定仍不能确定的,适用本法第六十二条第一项的规定。

第一百五十五条 出卖人交付的标的物不符合质量要求的,买受人可以依照本法第一百一
十一条的规定要求承担违约责任。

第一百五十六条 出卖人应当按照约定的包装方式交付标的物。对包装方式没有约定或者
约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,应当按照通用的方式包装,没
有通用方式的,应当采取足以保护标的物的包装方式。

第一百五十七条 买受人收到标的物时应当在约定的检验期间内检验。没有约定检验期间
的,应当及时检验。

第一百五十八条 当事人约定检验期间的,买受人应当在检验期间内将标的物的数量或者
质量不符合约定的情形通知出卖人。买受人怠于通知的,视为标的物的数量或者质量符
合约定。

当事人没有约定检验期间的,买受人应当在发现或者应当发现标的物的数量或者质量不
符合约定的合理期间内通知出卖人。买受人在合理期间内未通知或者自标的物收到之日
起两年内未通知出卖人的,视为标的物的数量或者质量符合约定,但对标的物有质量保
证期的,适用质量保证期,不适用该两年的规定。

出卖人知道或者应当知道提供的标的物不符合约定的,买受人不受前两款规定的通知时
间的限制。

第一百五十九条 买受人应当按照约定的数额支付价款。对价款没有约定或者约定不明确
的,适用本法第六十一条、第六十二条第二项的规定。

第一百六十条 买受人应当按照约定的地点支付价款。对支付地点没有约定或者约定不明
确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在出卖人的营业地支付,但
约定支付价款以交付标的物或者交付提取标的物单证为条件的,在交付标的物或者交付
提取标的物单证的所在地支付。

第一百六十一条 买受人应当按照约定的时间支付价款。对支付时间没有约定或者约定不
明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,买受人应当在收到标的物或者提取标
的物单证的同时支付。

第一百六十二条 出卖人多交标的物的,买受人可以接收或者拒绝接收多交的部分。买受
人接收多交部分的,按照合同的价格支付价款;买受人拒绝接收多交部分的,应当及时
通知出卖人。

第一百六十三条 标的物在交付之前产生的孳息,归出卖人所有,交付之后产生的孳息,
归买受人所有。

第一百六十四条 因标的物的主物不符合约定而解除合同的,解除合同的效力及于从物。
因标的物的从物不符合约定被解除的,解除的效力不及于主物。

第一百六十五条 标的物为数物,其中一物不符合约定的,买受人可以就该物解除,但该
物与他物分离使标的物的价值显受损害的,当事人可以就数物解除合同。

第一百六十六条 出卖人分批交付标的物的,出卖人对其中一批标的物不交付或者交付不
符合约定,致使该批标的物不能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批标的物解除。

出卖人不交付其中一批标的物或者交付不符合约定,致使今后其他各批标的物的交付不
能实现合同目的的,买受人可以就该批以及今后其他各批标的物解除。

买受人如果就其中一批标的物解除,该批标的物与其他各批标的物相互依存的,可以就
已经交付和未交付的各批标的物解除。

第一百六十七条 分期付款的买受人未支付到期价款的金额达到全部价款的五分之一的,
出卖人可以要求买受人支付全部价款或者解除合同。

出卖人解除合同的,可以向买受人要求支付该标的物的使用费。

第一百六十八条 凭样品买卖的当事人应当封存样品,并可以对样品质量予以说明。出卖
人交付的标的物应当与样品及其说明的质量相同。

第一百六十九条 凭样品买卖的买受人不知道样品有隐蔽瑕疵的,即使交付的标的物与样
品相同,出卖人交付的标的物的质量仍然应当符合同种物的通常标准。

第一百七十条 试用买卖的当事人可以约定标的物的试用期间。对试用期间没有约定或者
约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,由出卖人确定。

第一百七十一条 试用买卖的买受人在试用期内可以购买标的物,也可以拒绝购买。试用
期间届满,买受人对是否购买标的物未作表示的,视为购买。

第一百七十二条 招标投标买卖的当事人的权利和义务以及招标投标程序等,依照有关法
律、行政法规的规定。

第一百七十三条 拍卖的当事人的权利和义务以及拍卖程序等,依照有关法律、行政法规
的规定。

第一百七十四条 法律对其他有偿合同有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,参照买卖合
同的有关规定。

第一百七十五条 当事人约定易货交易,转移标的物的所有权的,参照买卖合同的有关规
定。


第十章 供用电、水、气、热力合同

第一百七十六条 供用电合同是供电人向用电人供电,用电人支付电费的合同。

第一百七十七条 供用电合同的内容包括供电的方式、质量、时间,用电容量、地址、性
质,计量方式,电价、电费的结算方式,供用电设施的维护责任等条款。

第一百七十八条 供用电合同的履行地点,按照当事人约定;当事人没有约定或者约定不
明确的,供电设施的产权分界处为履行地点。

第一百七十九条 供电人应当按照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电。供电人未按
照国家规定的供电质量标准和约定安全供电,造成用电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责
任。

第一百八十条 供电人因供电设施计划检修、临时检修、依法限电或者用电人违法用电等
原因,需要中断供电时,应当按照国家有关规定事先通知用电人。未事先通知用电人中
断供电,造成用电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百八十一条 因自然灾害等原因断电,供电人应当按照国家有关规定及时抢修。未及
时抢修,造成用电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百八十二条 用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定及时交付电费。用电人逾
期不交付电费的,应当按照约定支付违约金。经催告用电人在合理期限内仍不交付电费
和违约金的,供电人可以按照国家规定的程序中止供电。

第一百八十三条 用电人应当按照国家有关规定和当事人的约定安全用电。用电人未按照
国家有关规定和当事人的约定安全用电,造成供电人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百八十四条 供用水、供用气、供用热力合同,参照供用电合同的有关规定。


第十一章 赠与合同

第一百八十五条 赠与合同是赠与人将自己的财产无偿给予受赠人,受赠人表示接受赠与
的合同。

第一百八十六条 赠与人在赠与财产的权利转移之前可以撤销赠与。

具有救灾、扶贫等社会公益、道德义务性质的赠与合同或者经过公证的赠与合同,不适
用前款规定。

第一百八十七条 赠与的财产依法需要办理登记等手续的,应当办理有关手续。

第一百八十八条 具有救灾、扶贫等社会公益、道德义务性质的赠与合同或者经过公证的
赠与合同,赠与人不交付赠与的财产的,受赠人可以要求交付。

第一百八十九条 因赠与人故意或者重大过失致使赠与的财产毁损、灭失的,赠与人应当
承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百九十条 赠与可以附义务。

赠与附义务的,受赠人应当按照约定履行义务。

第一百九十一条 赠与的财产有瑕疵的,赠与人不承担责任。附义务的赠与,赠与的财产
有瑕疵的,赠与人在附义务的限度内承担与出卖人相同的责任。

赠与人故意不告知瑕疵或者保证无瑕疵,造成受赠人损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第一百九十二条 受赠人有下列情形之一的,赠与人可以撤销赠与:

(一)严重侵害赠与人或者赠与人的近亲属;

(二)对赠与人有扶养义务而不履行;

(三)不履行赠与合同约定的义务。

赠与人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销原因之日起一年内行使。

第一百九十三条 因受赠人的违法行为致使赠与人死亡或者丧失民事行为能力的,赠与人
的继承人或者法定代理人可以撤销赠与。
赠与人的继承人或者法定代理人的撤销权,自知道或者应当知道撤销原因之日起六
个月内行使。

第一百九十四条 撤销权人撤销赠与的,可以向受赠人要求返还赠与的财产。

第一百九十五条 赠与人的经济状况显著恶化,严重影响其生产经营或者家庭生活的,可
以不再履行赠与义务。


第十二章 借款合同

第一百九十六条 借款合同是借款人向贷款人借款,到期返还借款并支付利息的合同。

第一百九十七条 借款合同采用书面形式,但自然人之间借款另有约定的除外。

借款合同的内容包括借款种类、币种、用途、数额、利率、期限和还款方式等条款。

第一百九十八条 订立借款合同,贷款人可以要求借款人提供担保。担保依照《中华人民
共和国担保法》的规定。

第一百九十九条 订立借款合同,借款人应当按照贷款人的要求提供与借款有关的业务活
动和财务状况的真实情况。

第二百条 借款的利息不得预先在本金中扣除。利息预先在本金中扣除的,应当按照实际
借款数额返还借款并计算利息。

第二百零一条 贷款人未按照约定的日期、数额提供借款,造成借款人损失的,应当赔偿
损失。

借款人未按照约定的日期、数额收取借款的,应当按照约定的日期、数额支付利息。

第二百零二条 贷款人按照约定可以检查、监督借款的使用情况。借款人应当按照约定向
贷款人定期提供有关财务会计报表等资料。

第二百零三条 借款人未按照约定的借款用途使用借款的,贷款人可以停止发放借款、提
前收回借款或者解除合同。

第二百零四条 办理贷款业务的金融机构贷款的利率,应当按照中国人民银行规定的贷款
利率的上下限确定。

第二百零五条 借款人应当按照约定的期限支付利息。对支付利息的期限没有约定或者约
定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定,借款期间不满一年的,应当在返还
借款时一并支付;借款期间一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期间不满一年
的,应当在返还借款时一并支付。

第二百零六条 借款人应当按照约定的期限返还借款。对借款期限没有约定或者约定不明
确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,借款人可以随时返还;贷款人可以催告
借款人在合理期限内返还。

第二百零七条 借款人未按照约定的期限返还借款的,应当按照约定或者国家有关规定支
付逾期利息。

第二百零八条 借款人提前偿还借款的,除当事人另有约定的以外,应当按
照实际借款的期间计算利息。

第二百零九条 借款人可以在还款期限届满之前向贷款人申请展期。贷款人同意的,可以
展期。

第二百一十条 自然人之间的借款合同,自贷款人提供借款时生效。

第二百一十一条 自然人之间的借款合同对支付利息没有约定或者约定不明确的,视为不
支付利息。

自然人之间的借款合同约定支付利息的,借款的利率不得违反国家有关限制借款利率的
规定。


工 第十三章 租赁合同

第二百一十二条 租赁合同是出租人将租赁物交付承租人使用、收益,承租人支付租金的
合同。

第二百一十三条 租赁合同的内容包括租赁物的名称、数量、用途、租赁期限、租金及其
支付期限和方式、租赁物维修等条款。

第二百一十四条 租赁期限不得超过二十年。超过二十年的,超过部分无效。

租赁期间届满,当事人可以续订租赁合同,但约定的租赁期限自续订之日起不得超过二
十年。

第二百一十五条 租赁期限六个月以上的,应当采用书面形式。当事人未采用书面形式的,
视为不定期租赁。

第二百一十六条 出租人应当按照约定将租赁物交付承租人,并在租赁期间保持租赁物符
合约定的用途。

第二百一十七条 承租人应当按照约定的方法使用租赁物。对租赁物的使用方法没有约定
或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,应当按照租赁物的性质使
用。

第二百一十八条 承租人按照约定的方法或者租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受到
损耗的,不承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百一十九条 承租人未按照约定的方法或者租赁物的性质使用租赁物,致使租赁物受
到损失的,出租人可以解除合同并要求赔偿损失。

第二百二十条 出租人应当履行租赁物的维修义务,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二百二十一条 承租人在租赁物需要维修时可以要求出租人在合理期限内维修。出租人
未履行维修义务的,承租人可以自行维修,维修费用由出租人负担。因维修租赁物影响
承租人使用的,应当相应减少租金或者延长租期。

第二百二十二条 承租人应当妥善保管租赁物,因保管不善造成租赁物毁损、灭失的,应
当承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百二十三条 承租人经出租人同意,可以对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物。

承租人未经出租人同意,对租赁物进行改善或者增设他物的,出租人可以要求承租人恢
复原状或者赔偿损失。

第二百二十四条 承租人经出租人同意,可以将租赁物转租给第三人。承租人转租的,承
租人与出租人之间的租赁合同继续有效,第三人对租赁物造成损失的,承租人应当赔偿
损失。

承租人未经出租人同意转租的,出租人可以解除合同。

第二百二十五条 在租赁期间因占有、使用租赁物获得的收益,归承租人所有,但当事人
另有约定的除外。

第二百二十六条 承租人应当按照约定的期限支付租金。对支付期限没有约定或者约定不
明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定,租赁期间不满一年的,应当在租赁期间
届满时支付;租赁期间一年以上的,应当在每届满一年时支付,剩余期间不满一年的,
应当在租赁期间届满时支付。

第二百二十七条 承租人无正当理由未支付或者迟延支付租金的,出租人可以要求承租人
在合理期限内支付。承租人逾期不支付的,出租人可以解除合同。

第二百二十八条 因第三人主张权利,致使承租人不能对租赁物使用、收益的,承租人可
以要求减少租金或者不支付租金。

第三人主张权利的,承租人应当及时通知出租人。

第二百二十九条 租赁物在租赁期间发生所有权变动的,不影响租赁合同的效力。

第二百三十条 出租人出卖租赁房屋的,应当在出卖之前的合理期限内通知承租人,承租
人享有以同等条件优先购买的权利。

第二百三十一条 因不可归责于承租人的事由,致使租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失的,
承租人可以要求减少租金或者不支付租金;因租赁物部分或者全部毁损、灭失,致使不
能实现合同目的的,承租人可以解除合同。

第二百三十二条 当事人对租赁期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规
定仍不能确定的,视为不定期租赁。当事人可以随时解除合同,但出租人解除合同应当
在合理期限之前通知承租人。

第二百三十三条 租赁物危及承租人的安全或者健康的,即使承租人订立合同时明知该租
赁物质量不合格,承租人仍然可以随时解除合同。

第二百三十四条 承租人在房屋租赁期间死亡的,与其生前共同居住的人可以按照原租赁
合同租赁该房屋。

第二百三十五条 租赁期间届满,承租人应当返还租赁物。返还的租赁物应当符合按照约
定或者租赁物的性质使用后的状态。

第二百三十六条 租赁期间届满,承租人继续使用租
赁物,出租人没有提出异议的,原租赁合同继续有效,但租赁期限为不定期。


工 第十四章 融资租赁合同

第二百三十七条 融资租赁合同是出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择,向出卖人
购买租赁物,提供给承租人使用,承租人支付租金的合同。

第二百三十八条 融资租赁合同的内容包括租赁物名称、数量、规格、技术性能、检验方
法、租赁期限、租金构成及其支付期限和方式、币种、租赁期间届满租赁物的归属等条
款。

融资租赁合同应当采用书面形式。

第二百三十九条 出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,出卖人应
当按照约定向承租人交付标的物,承租人享有与受领标的物有关的买受人的权利。

第二百四十条 出租人、出卖人、承租人可以约定,出卖人不履行买卖合同义务的,由承
租人行使索赔的权利。承租人行使索赔权利的,出租人应当协助。

第二百四十一条 出租人根据承租人对出卖人、租赁物的选择订立的买卖合同,未经承租
人同意,出租人不得变更与承租人有关的合同内容。

第二百四十二条 出租人享有租赁物的所有权。承租人破产的,租赁物不属于破产财产。

第二百四十三条 融资租赁合同的租金,除当事人另有约定的以外,应当根据购买租赁物
的大部分或者全部成本以及出租人的合理利润确定。

第二百四十四条 租赁物不符合约定或者不符合使用目的的,出租人不承担责任,但承租
人依赖出租人的技能确定租赁物或者出租人干预选择租赁物的除外。

第二百四十五条 出租人应当保证承租人对租赁物的占有和使用。

第二百四十六条 承租人占有租赁物期间,租赁物造成第三人的人身伤害或者财产损害的,
出租人不承担责任。

第二百四十七条 承租人应当妥善保管、使用租赁物。

承租人应当履行占有租赁物期间的维修义务。

第二百四十八条 承租人应当按照约定支付租金。承租人经催告后在合理期限内仍不支付
租金的,出租人可以要求支付全部租金;也可以解除合同,收回租赁物。

第二百四十九条 当事人约定租赁期间届满租赁物归承租人所有,承租人已经支付大部分
租金,但无力支付剩余租金,出租人因此解除合同收回租赁物的,收回的租赁物的价值
超过承租人欠付的租金以及其他费用的,承租人可以要求部分返还。

第二百五十条 出租人和承租人可以约定租赁期间届满租赁物的归属。对租赁物的归属没
有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,租赁物的所有权归
出租人。


工 第十五章 承揽合同

第二百五十一条 承揽合同是承揽人按照定作人的要求完成工作,交付工作成果,定作人
给付报酬的合同。

承揽包括加工、定作、修理、复制、测试、检验等工作。

第二百五十二条 承揽合同的内容包括承揽的标的、数量、质量、报酬、承揽方式、材料
的提供、履行期限、验收标准和方法等条款。

第二百五十三条 承揽人应当以自己的设备、技术和劳力,完成主要工作,但当事人另有
约定的除外。

承揽人将其承揽的主要工作交由第三人完成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向定作
人负责;未经定作人同意的,定作人也可以解除合同。

第二百五十四条 承揽人可以将其承揽的辅助工作交由第三人完成。承揽人将其承揽的辅
助工作交由第三人完成的,应当就该第三人完成的工作成果向定作人负责。

第二百五十五条 承揽人提供材料的,承揽人应当按照约定选用材料,并接受定作人检验。

第二百五十六条 定作人提供材料的,定作人应当按照约定提供材料。承揽人对定作人提
供的材料,应当及时检验,发现不符合约定时,应当及时通知定作人更换、补齐或者采
取其他补救措施。

承揽人不得擅自更换定作人提供的材料,不得更换不需要修理的零部件。

第二百五十七条 承揽人发现定作人提供的图纸或者技术要求不合理的,应当及时通知定
作人。因定作人怠于答复等原因造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第二百五十八条 定作人中途变更承揽工作的要求,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第二百五十九条 承揽工作需要定作人协助的,定作人有协助的义务。定作人不履行协助
义务致使承揽工作不能完成的,承揽人可以催告定作人在合理期限内履行义务,并可以
顺延履行期限;定作人逾期不履行的,承揽人可以解除合同。

第二百六十条 承揽人在工作期间,应当接受定作人必要的监督检验。定作人不得因监督
检验妨碍承揽人的正常工作。

第二百六十一条 承揽人完成工作的,应当向定作人交付工作成果,并提交必要的技术资
料和有关质量证明。定作人应当验收该工作成果。

第二百六十二条 承揽人交付的工作成果不符合质量要求的,定作人可以要求承揽人承担
修理、重作、减少报酬、赔偿损失等违约责任。

第二百六十三条 定作人应当按照约定的期限支付报酬。对支付报酬的期限没有约定或者
约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,定作人应当在承揽人交付工作
成果时支付;工作成果部分交付的,定作人应当相应支付。

第二百六十四条 定作人未向承揽人支付报酬或者材料费等价款的,承揽人对完成的
工作成果享有留置权,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二百六十五条 承揽人应当妥善保管定作人提供的材料以及完成的工作成果,因保管不
善造成毁损、灭失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百六十六条 承揽人应当按照定作人的要求保守秘密,未经定作人许可,不得留存复
制品或者技术资料。

第二百六十七条 共同承揽人对定作人承担连带责任,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第二百六十八条 定作人可以随时解除承揽合同,造成承揽人损失的,应当赔偿损失。


工 第十六章 建设工程合同

第二百六十九条 建设工程合同是承包人进行工程建设,发包人支付价款的合同。

建设工程合同包括工程勘察、设计、施工合同。

第二百七十条 建设工程合同应当采用书面形式。

第二百七十一条 建设工程的招标投标活动,应当依照有关法律的规定公开、公平、公正
进行。

第二百七十二条 发包人可以与总承包人订立建设工程合同,也可以分别与勘察人、
设计人、施工人订立勘察、设计、施工承包合同。发包人不得将应当由一个承包人完成
的建设工程肢解成若干部分发包给几个承包人。

总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人经发包人同意,可以将自己承包的部分工作交由
第三人完成。第三人就其完成的工作成果与总承包人或者勘察、设计、施工承包人向发
包人承担连带责任。承包人不得将其承包的全部建设工程转包给第三人或者将其承包的
全部建设工程肢解以后以分包的名义分别转包给第三人。

禁止承包人将工程分包给不具备相应资质条件的单位。禁止分包单位将其承包的工程再
分包。建设工程主体结构的施工必须由承包人自行完成。

第二百七十三条 国家重大建设工程合同,应当按照国家规定的程序和国家批准的投资计
划、可行性研究报告等文件订立。

第二百七十四条 勘察、设计合同的内容包括提交有关基础资料和文件(包括概预算)的
期限、质量要求、费用以及其他协作条件等条款。

第二百七十五条 施工合同的内容包括工程范围、建设工期、中间交工工程的开工和竣工
时间、工程质量、工程造价、技术资料交付时间、材料和设备供应责任、拨款和结算、
竣工验收、质量保修范围和质量保证期、双方相互协作等条款。

第二百七十六条 建设工程实行监理的,发包人应当与监理人采用书面形式订立委托监理
合同。发包人与监理人的权利和义务以及法律责任,应当依照本法委托合同以及其他有
关法律、行政法规的规定。

第二百七十七条 发包人在不妨碍承包人正常作业的情况下,可以随时对作业进度、质量
进行检查。

第二百七十八条 隐蔽工程在隐蔽以前,承包人应当通知发包人检查。发包人没有及时检
查的,承包人可以顺延工程日期,并有权要求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。

第二百七十九条 建设工程竣工后,发包人应当根据施工图纸及说明书、国家颁发的施工
验收规范和质量检验标准及时进行验收。验收合格的,发包人应当按照约定支付价款,
并接收该建设工程。建设工程竣工经验收合格后,方可交付使用;未经验收或者验收不
合格的,不得交付使用。

第二百八十条 勘察、设计的质量不符合要求或者未按照期限提交勘察、设计文件拖延工
期,造成发包人损失的,勘察人、设计人应当继续完善勘察、设计,减收或者免收勘察、
设计费并赔偿损失。

第二百八十一条 因施工人的原因致使建设工程质量不符合约定的,发包人有权要求施工
人在合理期限内无偿修理或者返工、改建。经过修理或者返工、改建后,造成逾期交付
的,施工人应当承担违约责任。

第二百八十二条 因承包人的原因致使建设工程在合理使用期限内造成人身和财产损害的,
承包人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第二百八十三条 发包人未按照约定的时间和要求提供原材料、设备、场地、资金、技术
资料的,承包人可以顺延工程日期,并有权要求赔偿停工、窝工等损失。

第二百八十四条 因发包人的原因致使工程中途停建、缓建的,发包人应当采取措施弥补
或者减少损失,赔偿承包人因此造成的停工、窝工、倒运、机械设备调迁、材料和构件
积压等损失和实际费用。

第二百八十五条 因发包人变更计划,提供的资料不准确,或者未按照期限提供必需的勘
察、设计工作条件而造成勘察、设计的返工、停工或者修改设计,发包人应当按照勘察
人、设计人实际消耗的工作量增付费用。

第二百八十六条 发包人未按照约定支付价款的,承包人可以催告发包人在合理期限内支
付价款。发包人逾期不支付的,除按照建设工程的性质不宜折价、拍卖的以外,承包人
可以与发包人协议将该工程折价,也可以申请人民法院将该工程依法拍卖。建设工程的
价款就该工程折价或者拍卖的价款优先受偿。

第二百八十七条 本章没有规定的,适用承揽合同的有关规定。


第十七章 运输合同

第一节 一般规定

第二百八十八条 运输合同是承运人将旅客或者货物从起运地点运输到约定地点,旅客、
托运人或者收货人支付票款或者运输费用的合同。

第二百八十九条 从事公共运输的承运人不得拒绝旅客、托运人通常、合理的运输要求。

第二百九十条 承运人应当在约定期间或者合理期间内将旅客、货物安全运输到约定地点。

第二百九十一条 承运人应当按照约定的或者通常的运输路线将旅客、货物运输到约定地
点。

第二百九十二条 旅客、托运人或者收货人应当支付票款或者运输费用。承运人未按照约
定路线或者通常路线运输增加票款或者运输费用的,旅客、托运人或者收货人可以拒绝
支付增加部分的票款或者运输费用。

第二节 客运合同

第二百九十三条 客运合同自承运人向旅客交付客票时成立,但当事人另有约定或者另有
交易习惯的除外。

第二百九十四条 旅客应当持有效客票乘运。旅客无票乘运、超程乘运、越级乘运或者持
失效客票乘运的,应当补交票款,承运人可以按照规定加收票款。旅客不交付票款的,
承运人可以拒绝运输。

第二百九十五条 旅客因自己的原因不能按照客票记载的时间乘坐的,应当在约定的时间
内办理退票或者变更手续。逾期办理的,承运人可以不退票款,并不再承担运输义务。

第二百九十六条 旅客在运输中应当按照约定的限量携带行李。超过限量携带行李的,应
当办理托运手续。

第二百九十七条 旅客不得随身携带或者在行李中夹带易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有
放射性以及有可能危及运输工具上人身和财产安全的危险物品或者其他违禁物品。

旅客违反前款规定的,承运人可以将违禁物品卸下、销毁或者送交有关部门。旅客坚持
携带或者夹带违禁物品的,承运人应当拒绝运输。

第二百九十八条 承运人应当向旅客及时告知有关不能正常运输的重要事由和安全运输应
当注意的事项。

第二百九十九条 承运人应当按照客票载明的时间和班次运输旅客。承运人迟延运输的,
应当根据旅客的要求安排改乘其他班次或者退票。

第三百条 承运人擅自变更运输工具而降低服务标准的,应当根据旅客的要求退票或者减
收票款;提高服务标准的,不应当加收票款。

第三百零一条 承运人在运输过程中,应当尽力救助患有急病、分娩、遇险的旅客。

第三百零二条 承运人应当对运输过程中旅客的伤亡承担损害赔偿责任,但伤亡是旅客自
身健康原因造成的或者承运人证明伤亡是旅客故意、重大过失造成的除外。

前款规定适用于按照规定免票、持优待票或者经承运人许可搭乘的无票旅客。

第三百零三条 在运输过程中旅客自带物品毁损、灭失,承运人有过错的,应当承担损害
赔偿责任。

旅客托运的行李毁损、灭失的,适用货物运输的有关规定。

第三节 货运合同

第三百零四条 托运人办理货物运输,应当向承运人准确表明收货人的名称或者姓名或者
凭指示的收货人,货物的名称、性质、重量、数量,收货地点等有关货物运输的必要情
况。

因托运人申报不实或者遗漏重要情况,造成承运人损失的,托运人应当承担损害赔偿责
任。

第三百零五条 货物运输需要办理审批、检验等手续的,托运人应当将办理完有关手续的
文件提交承运人。

第三百零六条 托运人应当按照约定的方式包装货物。对包装方式没有约定或者约定不明
确的,适用本法第一百五十六条的规定。

托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输。

第三百零七条 托运人托运易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当
按照国家有关危险物品运输的规定对危险物品妥善包装,作出危险物标志和标签,并将
有关危险物品的名称、性质和防范措施的书面材料提交承运人。

托运人违反前款规定的,承运人可以拒绝运输,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失的发生,
因此产生的费用由托运人承担。

第三百零八条 在承运人将货物交付收货人之前,托运人可以要求承运人中止运输、返还
货物、变更到达地或者将货物交给其他收货人,但应当赔偿承运人因此受到的损失。

第三百零九条 货物运输到达后,承运人知道收货人的,应当及时通知收货人,收货人应
当及时提货。收货人逾期提货的,应当向承运人支付保管费等费用。

第三百一十条 收货人提货时应当按照约定的期限检验货物。对检验货物的期限没有约定
或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,应当在合理期限内检验货
物。收货人在约定的期限或者合理期限内对货物的数量、毁损等未提出异议的,视为承
运人已经按照运输单证的记载交付的初步证据。

第三百一十一条 承运人对运输过程中货物的毁损、灭失承担损害赔偿责任,但承运人证
明货物的毁损、灭失是因不可抗力、货物本身的自然性质或者合理损耗以及托运人、收
货人的过错造成的,不承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百一十二条 货物的毁损、灭失的赔偿额,当事人有约定的,按照其约定;没有约定
或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,按照交付或者应当交付时
货物到达地的市场价格计算。法律、行政法规对赔偿额的计算方法和赔偿限额另有规定
的,依照其规定。

第三百一十三条 两个以上承运人以同一运输方式联运的,与托运人订立合同的承运人应
当对全程运输承担责任。损失发生在某一运输区段的,与托运人订立合同的承运人和该
区段的承运人承担连带责任。

第三百一十四条 货物在运输过程中因不可抗力灭失,未收取运费的,承运人不得要求支
付运费;已收取运费的,托运人可以要求返还。

第三百一十五条 托运人或者收货人不支付运费、保管费以及其他运输费用的,承运人对
相应的运输货物享有留置权,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百一十六条 收货人不明或者收货人无正当理由拒绝受领货物的,依照本法第一百零
一条的规定,承运人可以提存货物。

第四节 多式联运合同

第三百一十七条 多式联运经营人负责履行或者组织履行多式联运合同,对全程运输享有
承运人的权利,承担承运人的义务。

第三百一十八条 多式联运经营人可以与参加多式联运的各区段承运人就多式联运合同的
各区段运输约定相互之间的责任,但该约定不影响多式联运经营人对全程运输承担的义
务。

第三百一十九条 多式联运经营人收到托运人交付的货物时,应当签发多式联运单据。按
照托运人的要求,多式联运单据可以是可转让单据,也可以是不可转让单据。

第三百二十条 因托运人托运货物时的过错造成多式联运经营人损失的,即使托运人已经
转让多式联运单据,托运人仍然应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百二十一条 货物的毁损、灭失发生于多式联运的某一运输区段的,多式联运经营人
的赔偿责任和责任限额,适用调整该区段运输方式的有关法律规定。货物毁损、灭失发
生的运输区段不能确定的,依照本章规定承担损害赔偿责任。


第十八章 技术合同

第一节 一般规定

第三百二十二条 技术合同是当事人就技术开发、转让、咨询或者服务订立的确立相互之
间权利和义务的合同。

第三百二十三条 订立技术合同,应当有利于科学技术的进步,加速科学技术成果的转化、
应用和推广。

第三百二十四条 技术合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括以下条款:

(一)项目名称;

(二)标的的内容、范围和要求;

(三)履行的计划、进度、期限、地点、地域和方式;

(四)技术情报和资料的保密;

(五)风险责任的承担;

(六)技术成果的归属和收益的分成办法;

(七)验收标准和方法;

(八)价款、报酬或者使用费及其支付方式;

(九)违约金或者损失赔偿的计算方法;

(十)解决争议的方法;

(十一)名词和术语的解释。

与履行合同有关的技术背景资料、可行性论证和技术评价报告、项目任务书和计划书、
技术标准、技术规范、原始设计和工艺文件,以及其他技术文档,按照当事人的约定可
以作为合同的组成部分。

技术合同涉及专利的,应当注明发明创造的名称、专利申请人和专利权人、申请日期、
申请号、专利号以及专利权的有效期限。

第三百二十五条 技术合同价款、报酬或者使用费的支付方式由当事人约定,可以采取一
次总算、一次总付或者一次总算、分期支付,也可以采取提成支付或者提成支付附加预
付入门费的方式。

约定提成支付的,可以按照产品价格、实施专利和使用技术秘密后新增的产值、利润或
者产品销售额的一定比例提成,也可以按照约定的其他方式计算。提成支付的比例可以
采取固定比例、逐年递增比例或者逐年递减比例。

约定提成支付的,当事人应当在合同中约定查阅有关会计帐目的办法。

第三百二十六条 职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于法人或者其他组织的,法人或者其
他组织可以就该项职务技术成果订立技术合同。法人或者其他组织应当从使用和转让该
项职务技术成果所取得的收益中提取一定比例,对完成该项职务技术成果的个人给予奖
励或者报酬。法人或者其他组织订立技术合同转让职务技术成果时,职务技术成果的完
成人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。

职务技术成果是执行法人或者其他组织的工作任务,或者主要是利用法人或者其他组织
的物质技术条件所完成的技术成果。

第三百二十七条 非职务技术成果的使用权、转让权属于完成技术成果的个人,完成技术
成果的个人可以就该项非职务技术成果订立技术合同。

第三百二十八条 完成技术成果的个人有在有关技术成果文件上写明自己是技术成果完成
者的权利和取得荣誉证书、奖励的权利。

第三百二十九条 非法垄断技术、妨碍技术进步或者侵害他人技术成果的技术合同无效。

第二节 技术开发合同

第三百三十条 技术开发合同是指当事人之间就新技术、新产品、新工艺或者新材料及其
系统的研究开发所订立的合同。

技术开发合同包括委托开发合同和合作开发合同。

技术开发合同应当采用书面形式。
当事人之间就具有产业应用价值的科技成果实施转化订立的合同,参照技术开发合
同的规定。

第三百三十一条 委托开发合同的委托人应当按照约定支付研究开发经费和报酬;提供技
术资料、原始数据;完成协作事项;接受研究开发成果。

第三百三十二条 委托开发合同的研究开发人应当按照约定制定和实施研究开发计划;合
理使用研究开发经费;按期完成研究开发工作,交付研究开发成果,提供有关的技术资
料和必要的技术指导,帮助委托人掌握研究开发成果。

第三百三十三条 委托人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承担违
约责任。

第三百三十四条 研究开发人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败的,应当承
担违约责任。

第三百三十五条 合作开发合同的当事人应当按照约定进行投资,包括以技术进行投资;
分工参与研究开发工作;协作配合研究开发工作。

第三百三十六条 合作开发合同的当事人违反约定造成研究开发工作停滞、延误或者失败
的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百三十七条 因作为技术开发合同标的的技术已经由他人公开,致使技术开发合同的
履行没有意义的,当事人可以解除合同。

第三百三十八条 在技术开发合同履行过程中,因出现无法克服的技术困难,致使研究开
发失败或者部分失败的,该风险责任由当事人约定。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本
法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,风险责任由当事人合理分担。

当事人一方发现前款规定的可能致使研究开发失败或者部分失败的情形时,应当及时通
知另一方并采取适当措施减少损失。没有及时通知并采取适当措施,致使损失扩大的,
应当就扩大的损失承担责任。

第三百三十九条 委托开发完成的发明创造,除当事人另有约定的以外,申请专利的权利
属于研究开发人。研究开发人取得专利权的,委托人可以免费实施该专利。

研究开发人转让专利申请权的,委托人享有以同等条件优先受让的权利。

第三百四十条 合作开发完成的发明创造,除当事人另有约定的以外,申请专利的权利属
于合作开发的当事人共有。当事人一方转让其共有的专利申请权的,其他各方享有以同
等条件优先受让的权利。

合作开发的当事人一方声明放弃其共有的专利申请权的,可以由另一方单独申请或者由
其他各方共同申请。申请人取得专利权的,放弃专利申请权的一方可以免费实施该专利。

合作开发的当事人一方不同意申请专利的,另一方或者其他各方不得申请专利。

第三百四十一条 委托开发或者合作开发完成的技术秘密成果的使用权、转让权以及利益
的分配办法,由当事人约定。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍
不能确定的,当事人均有使用和转让的权利,但委托开发的研究开发人不得在向委托人
交付研究开发成果之前,将研究开发成果转让给第三人。

第三节 技术转让合同

第三百四十二条 技术转让合同包括专利权转让、专利申请权转让、技术秘密转让、专利
实施许可合同。

技术转让合同应当采用书面形式。

第三百四十三条 技术转让合同可以约定让与人和受让人实施专利或者使用技术秘密的范
围,但不得限制技术竞争和技术发展。

第三百四十四条 专利实施许可合同只在该专利权的存续期间内有效。专利权有效期限届
满或者专利权被宣布无效的,专利权人不得就该专利与他人订立专利实施许可合同。

第三百四十五条 专利实施许可合同的让与人应当按照约定许可受让人实施专利,交付实
施专利有关的技术资料,提供必要的技术指导。

第三百四十六条 专利实施许可合同的受让人应当按照约定实施专利,不得许可约定以外
的第三人实施该专利;并按照约定支付使用费。

第三百四十七条 技术秘密转让合同的让与人应当按照约定提供技术资料,进行技术指导,
保证技术的实用性、可靠性,承担保密义务。

第三百四十八条 技术秘密转让合同的受让人应当按照约定使用技术,支付使用费,承担
保密义务。

第三百四十九条 技术转让合同的让与人应当保证自己是所提供的技术的合法拥有者,并
保证所提供的技术完整、无误、有效,能够达到约定的目标。

第三百五十条 技术转让合同的受让人应当按照约定的范围和期限,对让与人提供的技术
中尚未公开的秘密部分,承担保密义务。

第三百五十一条 让与人未按照约定转让技术的,应当返还部分或者全部使用费,并应当
承担违约责任;实施专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,违反约定擅自许可第三
人实施该项专利或者使用该项技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;违反约
定的保密义务的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百五十二条 受让人未按照约定支付使用费的,应当补交使用费并按照约定支付违约
金;不补交使用费或者支付违约金的,应当停止实施专利或者使用技术秘密,交还技术
资料,承担违约责任;实施专利或者使用技术秘密超越约定的范围的,未经让与人同意
擅自许可第三人实施该专利或者使用该技术秘密的,应当停止违约行为,承担违约责任;
违反约定的保密义务的,应当承担违约责任。

第三百五十三条 受让人按照约定实施专利、使用技术秘密侵害他人合法权益的,由让与
人承担责任,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百五十四条 当事人可以按照互利的原则,在技术转让合同中约定实施专利、使用技
术秘密后续改进的技术成果的分享办法。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一
条的规定仍不能确定的,一方后续改进的技术成果,其他各方无权分享。

第三百五十五条 法律、行政法规对技术进出口合同或者专利、专利申请合同另有规定的,
依照其规定。

第四节 技术咨询合同和技术服务合同

第三百五十六条 技术咨询合同包括就特定技术项目提供可行性论证、技术预测、专题技
术调查、分析评价报告等合同。

技术服务合同是指当事人一方以技术知识为另一方解决特定技术问题所订立的合同,不
包括建设工程合同和承揽合同。

第三百五十七条 技术咨询合同的委托人应当按照约定阐明咨询的问题,提供技术背景材
料及有关技术资料、数据;接受受托人的工作成果,支付报酬。

第三百五十八条 技术咨询合同的受托人应当按照约定的期限完成咨询报告或者解答问题;
提出的咨询报告应当达到约定的要求。

第三百五十九条 技术咨询合同的委托人未按照约定提供必要的资料和数据,影响工作进
度和质量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付的报酬应当
支付。

技术咨询合同的受托人未按期提出咨询报告或者提出的咨询报告不符合约定的,应当承
担减收或者免收报酬等违约责任。

技术咨询合同的委托人按照受托人符合约定要求的咨询报告和意见作出决策所造成的损
失,由委托人承担,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百六十条 技术服务合同的委托人应当按照约定提供工作条件,完成配合事项;接受
工作成果并支付报酬。

第三百六十一条 技术服务合同的受托人应当按照约定完成服务项目,解决技术问题,保
证工作质量,并传授解决技术问题的知识。

第三百六十二条 技术服务合同的委托人不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,
影响工作进度和质量,不接受或者逾期接受工作成果的,支付的报酬不得追回,未支付
的报酬应当支付。

技术服务合同的受托人未按照合同约定完成服务工作的,应当承担免收报酬等违约责任。

第三百六十三条 在技术咨询合同、技术服务合同履行过程中,受托人利用委托人提供的
技术资料和工作条件完成的新的技术成果,属于受托人。委托人利用受托人的工作成果
完成的新的技术成果,属于委托人。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

第三百六十四条 法律、行政法规对技术中介合同、技术培训合同另有规定的,依照其规
定。


第十九章 保管合同


第三百六十五条 保管合同是保管人保管寄存人交付的保管物,并返还该物的合同。

第三百六十六条 寄存人应当按照约定向保管人支付保管费。

当事人对保管费没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,
保管是无偿的。

第三百六十七条 保管合同自保管物交付时成立,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百六十八条 寄存人向保管人交付保管物的,保管人应当给付保管凭证,但另有交易
习惯的除外。

第三百六十九条 保管人应当妥善保管保管物。

当事人可以约定保管场所或者方法。除紧急情况或者为了维护寄存人利益的以外,不得
擅自改变保管场所或者方法。

第三百七十条 寄存人交付的保管物有瑕疵或者按照保管物的性质需要采取特殊保管措施
的,寄存人应当将有关情况告知保管人。寄存人未告知,致使保管物受损失的,保管人
不承担损害赔偿责任;保管人因此受损失的,除保管人知道或者应当知道并且未采取补
救措施的以外,寄存人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百七十一条 保管人不得将保管物转交第三人保管,但当事人另有约定的除外。

保管人违反前款规定,将保管物转交第三人保管,对保管物造成损失的,应当承担损害
赔偿责任。

第三百七十二条 保管人不得使用或者许可第三人使用保管物,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第三百七十三条 第三人对保管物主张权利的,除依法对保管物采取保全或者执行的以外,
保管人应当履行向寄存人返还保管物的义务。

第三人对保管人提起诉讼或者对保管物申请扣押的,保管人应当及时通知寄存人。

第三百七十四条 保管期间,因保管人保管不善造成保管物毁损、灭失的,保管人应当承
担损害赔偿责任,但保管是无偿的,保管人证明自己没有重大过失的,不承担损害赔偿
责任。

第三百七十五条 寄存人寄存货币、有价证券或者其他贵重物品的,应当向保管人声明,
由保管人验收或者封存。寄存人未声明的,该物品毁损、灭失后,保管人可以按照一般
物品予以赔偿。

第三百七十六条 寄存人可以随时领取保管物。

当事人对保管期间没有约定或者约定不明确的,保管人可以随时要求寄存人领取保管物;
约定保管期间的,保管人无特别事由,不得要求寄存人提前领取保管物。

第三百七十七条 保管期间届满或者寄存人提前领取保管物的,保管人应当将原物及其孳
息归还寄存人。

第三百七十八条 保管人保管货币的,可以返还相同种类、数量的货币。保管其他可替代
物的,可以按照约定返还相同种类、品质、数量的物品。

第三百七十九条 有偿的保管合同,寄存人应当按照约定的期限向保管人支付保管费。

?? 当事人对支付期限没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定
的,应当在领取保管物的同时支付。

第三百八十条 寄存人未按照约定支付保管费以及其他费用的,保管人对保管物享有留置
权,但当事人另有约定的除外。


第二十章 仓储合同

第三百八十一条 仓储合同是保管人储存存货人交付的仓储物,存货人支付仓储费的合同。

第三百八十二条 仓储合同自成立时生效。

第三百八十三条 储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品或者易变质物
品,存货人应当说明该物品的性质,提供有关资料。

存货人违反前款规定的,保管人可以拒收仓储物,也可以采取相应措施以避免损失的发
生,因此产生的费用由存货人承担。

保管人储存易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品的,应当具备相应的保
管条件。

第三百八十四条 保管人应当按照约定对入库仓储物进行验收。保管人验收时发现入库仓
储物与约定不符合的,应当及时通知存货人。保管人验收后,发生仓储物的品种、数量、
质量不符合约定的,保管人应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百八十五条 存货人交付仓储物的,保管人应当给付仓单。

第三百八十六条 保管人应当在仓单上签字或者盖章。仓单包括下列事项:

(一)存货人的名称或者姓名和住所;

(二)仓储物的品种、数量、质量、包装、件数和标记;

(三)仓储物的损耗标准;

(四)储存场所;

(五)储存期间;

(六)仓储费;

(七)仓储物已经办理保险的,其保险金额、期间以及保险人的名称;

(八)填发人、填发地和填发日期。

第三百八十七条 仓单是提取仓储物的凭证。存货人或者仓单持有人在仓单上背书并经保
管人签字或者盖章的,可以转让提取仓储物的权利。

第三百八十八条 保管人根据存货人或者仓单持有人的要求,应当同意其检查仓储物或者
提取样品。

第三百八十九条 保管人对入库仓储物发现有变质或者其他损坏的,应当及时
通知存货人或者仓单持有人。

第三百九十条 保管人对入库仓储物发现有变质或者其他损坏,危及其他仓储物的安全和
正常保管的,应当催告存货人或者仓单持有人作出必要的处置。因情况紧急,保管人可
以作出必要的处置,但事后应当将该情况及时通知存货人或者仓单持有人。

第三百九十一条 当事人对储存期间没有约定或者约定不明确的,存货人或者仓单持有人
可以随时提取仓储物,保管人也可以随时要求存货人或者仓单持有人提取仓储物,但应
当给予必要的准备时间。

第三百九十二条 储存期间届满,存货人或者仓单持有人应当凭仓单提取仓储物。存货人
或者仓单持有人逾期提取的,应当加收仓储费;提前提取的,不减收仓储费。

第三百九十三条 储存期间届满,存货人或者仓单持有人不提取仓储物的,保管人可以催
告其在合理期限内提取,逾期不提取的,保管人可以提存仓储物。

第三百九十四条 储存期间,因保管人保管不善造成仓储物毁损、灭失的,保管人应当承
担损害赔偿责任。因仓储物的性质、包装不符合约定或者超过有效储存期造成仓储物变
质、损坏的,保管人不承担损害赔偿责任。

第三百九十五条 本章没有规定的,适用保管合同的有关规定。


第二十一章 委托合同

第三百九十六条 委托合同是委托人和受托人约定,由受托人处理委托人事务的合同。

第三百九十七条 委托人可以特别委托受托人处理一项或者数项事务,也可以概括委托受
托人处理一切事务。

第三百九十八条 委托人应当预付处理委托事务的费用。受托人为处理委托事务垫付的必
要费用,委托人应当偿还该费用及其利息。

第三百九十九条 受托人应当按照委托人的指示处理委托事务。需要变更委托人指示的,
应当经委托人同意;因情况紧急,难以和委托人取得联系的,受托人应当妥善处理委托
事务,但事后应当将该情况及时报告委托人。

第四百条 受托人应当亲自处理委托事务。经委托人同意,受托人可以转委托。转委托经
同意的,委托人可以就委托事务直接指示转委托的第三人,受托人仅就第三人的选任及
其对第三人的指示承担责任。转委托未经同意的,受托人应当对转委托的第三人的行为
承担责任,但在紧急情况下受托人为维护委托人的利益需要转委托的除外。

第四百零一条 受托人应当按照委托人的要求,报告委托事务的处理情况。委托合同终止
时,受托人应当报告委托事务的结果。

第四百零二条 受托人以自己的名义,在委托人的授权范围内与第三人订立的合同,第三
人在订立合同时知道受托人与委托人之间的代理关系的,该合同直接约束委托人和第三
人,但有确切证据证明该合同只约束受托人和第三人的除外。

第四百零三条 受托人以自己的名义与第三人订立合同时,第三人不知道受托人与委托人
之间的代理关系的,受托人因第三人的原因对委托人不履行义务,受托人应当向委托人
披露第三人,委托人因此可以行使受托人对第三人的权利,但第三人与受托人订立合同
时如果知道该委托人就不会订立合同的除外。

受托人因委托人的原因对第三人不履行义务,受托人应当向第三人披露委托人,第三人
因此可以选择受托人或者委托人作为相对人主张其权利,但第三人不得变更选定的相对
人。

委托人行使受托人对第三人的权利的,第三人可以向委托人主张其对受托人的抗辩。第
三人选定委托人作为其相对人的,委托人可以向第三人主张其对受托人的抗辩以及受托
人对第三人的抗辩。

第四百零四条 受托人处理委托事务取得的财产,应当转交给委托人。

第四百零五条 受托人完成委托事务的,委托人应当向其支付报酬。因不可归责于受托人
的事由,委托合同解除或者委托事务不能完成的,委托人应当向受托人支付相应的报酬。
当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。

第四百零六条 有偿的委托合同,因受托人的过错给委托人造成损失的,委托人可以要求
赔偿损失。无偿的委托合同,因受托人的故意或者重大过失给委托人造成损失的,委托
人可以要求赔偿损失。

受托人超越权限给委托人造成损失的,应当赔偿损失。

第四百零七条 受托人处理委托事务时,因不可归责于自己的事由受到损失的,可以向委
托人要求赔偿损失。

第四百零八条 委托人经受托人同意,可以在受托人之外委托第三人处理委托事务。因此
给受托人造成损失的,受托人可以向委托人要求赔偿损失。

第四百零九条 两个以上的受托人共同处理委托事务的,对委托人承担连带责任。

第四百一十条 委托人或者受托人可以随时解除委托合同。因解除合同给对方造成损失的,
除不可归责于该当事人的事由以外,应当赔偿损失。

第四百一十一条 委托人或者受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者破产的,委托合同终止,
但当事人另有约定或者根据委托事务的性质不宜终止的除外。

第四百一十二条 因委托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者破产,致使委托合同终止将损害
委托人利益的,在委托人的继承人、法定代理人或者清算组织承受委托事务之前,受托
人应当继续处理委托事务。

第四百一十三条 因受托人死亡、丧失民事行为能力或者破产,致使委托合同终止的,受
托人的继承人、法定代理人或者清算组织应当及时通知委托人。因委托合同终止将损害
委托人利益的,在委托人作出善后处理之前,受托人的继承人、法定代理人或者清算组
织应当采取必要措施。


第二十二章 行纪合同

第四百一十四条 行纪合同是行纪人以自己的名义为委托人从事贸易活动,委托人支付报
酬的合同。

第四百一十五条 行纪人处理委托事务支出的费用,由行纪人负担,但当事人另有约定的
除外。

第四百一十六条 行纪人占有委托物的,应当妥善保管委托物。

第四百一十七条 委托物交付给行纪人时有瑕疵或者容易腐烂、变质的,经委托人同意,
行纪人可以处分该物;和委托人不能及时取得联系的,行纪人可以合理处分。

第四百一十八条 行纪人低于委托人指定的价格卖出或者高于委托人指定的价格买入的,
应当经委托人同意。未经委托人同意,行纪人补偿其差额的,该买卖对委托人发生效力。

行纪人高于委托人指定的价格卖出或者低于委托人指定的价格买入的,可以按照约定增
加报酬。没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,该利益
属于委托人。

委托人对价格有特别指示的,行纪人不得违背该指示卖出或者买入。

第四百一十九条 行纪人卖出或者买入具有市场定价的商品,除委托人有相反的意思表示
的以外,行纪人自己可以作为买受人或者出卖人。

行纪人有前款规定情形的,仍然可以要求委托人支付报酬。

第四百二十条 行纪人按照约定买入委托物,委托人应当及时受领。经行纪人催告,委托
人无正当理由拒绝受领的,行纪人依照本法第一百零一条的规定可以提存委托物。

委托物不能卖出或者委托人撤回出卖,经行纪人催告,委托人不取回或者不处分该物的,
行纪人依照本法第一百零一条的规定可以提存委托物。

第四百二十一条 行纪人与第三人订立合同的,行纪人对该合同直接享有权利、承担义务。

第三人不履行义务致使委托人受到损害的,行纪人应当承担损害赔偿责任,但行纪人与
委托人另有约定的除外。

第四百二十二条 行纪人完成或者部分完成委托事务的,委托人应当向其支付相应的报酬。
委托人逾期不支付报酬的,行纪人对委托物享有留置权,但当事人另有约定的除外。

第四百二十三条 本章没有规定的,适用委托合同的有关规定。


第二十三章 居间合同

第四百二十四条 居间合同是居间人向委托人报告订立合同的机会或者提供订立合同的媒
介服务,委托人支付报酬的合同。

第四百二十五条 居间人应当就有关订立合同的事项向委托人如实报告。

居间人故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况,损害委托人利益的,不
得要求支付报酬并应当承担损害赔偿责任。

第四百二十六条 居间人促成合同成立的,委托人应当按照约定支付报酬。对居间人的报
酬没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,根据居间人的
劳务合理确定。因居间人提供订立合同的媒介服务而促成合同成立的,由该合同的当事
人平均负担居间人的报酬。

居间人促成合同成立的,居间活动的费用,由居间人负担。

第四百二十七条 居间人未促成合同成立的,不得要求支付报酬,但可以要求委托人支付
从事居间活动支出的必要费用。


Ⅰ 附 则

第四百二十八条 本法自1999年10月1日起施行,《中华人民共和国经济合同法》、
《中华人民共和国涉外经济合同法》、《中华人民共和国技术合同法》同时废止。
 

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