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Porcelain
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         Blue and White Porcelain
Porcelain (cí qì 瓷器) derives its present name from old Italian porcellana because of its resemblance to the translucent surface of the shell. Porcelain can informally be referred to as "china" in some English-speaking countries, as China was the birth place of porcelain making. Porcelain was developed on the basis of pottery. If calculated from the appearance of the primitive porcelain in the Shang Dynasty (shāng cháo 商朝), it has a history of about 3000 years. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, glassiness, brittleness, whiteness, translucence, and resonance; and a high resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock.

CeladonThe techniques of manufacturing porcelain have developed rapidly since the Eastern Han Dynasty (dōng hàn 东汉). Famous kilns producing porcelain products with unique features and new pottery and porcelain varieties constantly came forth in subsequent dynasties. Celadon (qīng cí 青瓷) manufactured in the Yue Kiln (yuè yáo 越窑) of Zhejiang Province (zhè jiāng 浙江) and white porcelain (bái cí 白瓷) produced in the Xing Kiln (xíng yáo 邢窑) of Hebei Province (héběi 河北) in the Tang Dynasty (táng cháo 唐朝) are very precious. White porcelain of the Ding Kiln (dìng yáo 定窑) in Hebei Province, Jun porcelain (jūn cí 钧瓷) of the Jun Kiln (jūn yáo 钧窑) in Henan Province (hé nán 河南), and celadon of the Longquan Kiln (lóng quán yáo 龙泉窑) in Zhejiang Province in the Song Dynasty (sòng cháo 宋朝) are all priceless treasures. After the Song Dynasty, celadon wares produced by the Longquan Kiln in Zhejiang began to be exported abroad.

Colored PorcelainAfter the Yuan Dynasty (yuán cháo 元朝), the porcelain industry rose swiftly in Jingdezhen (jǐng dé zhèn 景德镇) of Jiangxi Province (jiāng xī 江西), which became known as the Capital of Porcelain (cí dū 瓷都). The porcelain ware of Jingdezhen is light and artful in weight, refined and exquisite in design. The most precious items include Blue and White Porcelain (qīng huā cí 青花瓷), Colored Porcelain (fěn cǎi cí 粉彩瓷), Exquisite Blue and White Porcelain (qīng huā líng lóng cí 青花玲珑瓷) and Eggshell Porcelain (bó tāi cí 薄胎瓷).


By the Sui (suí 隋)and Tang dynasties, porcelain had become widely produced. Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas; by the seventeenth century, it was being exported to Europe.


Chinese porcelain wares are not only daily handy necessities, but also precious arts and crafts. From the Han and Tang dynasties, Chinese porcelain wares and their manufacturing techniques gradually spread all over the world. Today, China continues to create new varieties of pricious porcelain wares.
      
瓷器
Blue and White Porcelain      中国是瓷器的故乡,瓷器的发明是中华民族对世界文明的伟大贡献,在英文中“瓷器(china)”与中国(China)同为一词。

      中国瓷器是从陶器发展演变而成的,原始瓷器起源于3000多年前。大约在公元前16世纪的商代中期,中国就出现了早期的瓷器。中国真正意义上的瓷器产生于东汉时期(公元25~220年)。唐代瓷器的制作技术和艺术创作已达到高度成熟。至宋代时,名瓷名窑已遍及大半个中国,是瓷业最为繁荣的时期。当时的汝窑、官窑、哥窑、钧窑和定窑并称为宋代五大名窑。明清时代从制坯、装饰、施釉到烧成,技术上又都超过前代。被称为瓷都的江西景德镇在元代出产的青花瓷已成为瓷器的代表。青花瓷釉质透明如水,胎体质薄轻巧,洁白的瓷体上敷以蓝色纹饰,素雅清新,充满生机。青花瓷一经出现便风靡一时,成为景德镇的传统名瓷之冠。与青花瓷共同并称四大名瓷的还有青花玲珑瓷、粉彩瓷和颜色釉瓷。另外,还有雕塑瓷、薄胎瓷、五彩胎瓷等,均精美非常,各有特色。

      我国的陶瓷业至今仍兴盛不衰,质高形美,其中比较著名的陶瓷产区有江西景德镇、湖南醴陵、广东石湾和枫溪、江苏宜兴、河北唐山和邯郸、山东淄博等。

      中国瓷器不仅是精美的日用品,也是珍贵的艺术品。自汉唐以来,中国瓷器就大量销往国外,中国的制瓷技术也逐渐传遍世界各地。 

Last Updated on Friday, 27 November 2009 09:44
 

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