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Home History and Culture Chinese Papercuts
Chinese Papercuts
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Papercuts refer to handicrafts made by cutting paper with scissors to form different patterns and pasting them on walls, windows, doors and ceilings. With their long history, papercuts, which originated in China, have been very popular among the ordinary people of China. The first papercut can be traced back to the Northern and Southern Dynasties (386-581) period. The initiation and spread of papercuts had a close relationship with Chinese rural festivals. People pasted papercuts on walls, windows and doors at wedding ceremonies or festivals to enhance the festive atmosphere.

Chinese papercuts are rich in content. The auspicious designs symbolize good luck and the avoidance of evil. The child, lotus and bottle gourd designs suggest a family with a large number of children and grandchildren. Domestic birds, livestock, fruit, fish and worms are also familiar objects depicted by Chinese farmers. There are some special papercuts of traditional design used as patterns for embroidering clothes,

shoes, hats, pillows, bed curtains and door curtains. Papercuts made in different areas have different characteristics. Shaanxi window papercuts are simple and bold; papercuts from Hebei Province and Shanxi Province are bright in color; papercuts in southern provinces are delicate and fine.

剪 纸
剪纸,顾名思义,就是用剪刀把纸剪出成图形。流传于中国广大的农村,由老百姓自己创作欣赏。作者大都是农村妇女。

剪纸包括窗花、门笺、墙花、顶棚花、灯花、花样、喜花、春花、丧花等等。剪纸也是一种民俗艺术,它的产生和流传同农村的节令风俗有着密切的关系。例如窗花、门笺、灯花,便是在春节或元宵节时贴挂的。在北方的农村,过年时,窗上新糊了雪白的窗纸,上面贴上红红绿绿的窗花,门顶、窗前,贴上门笺,元宵节夜晚的灯笼上贴上灯花,把新年的气氛造得浓浓的。喜花是结婚时作为对新房的布置,张贴在室内,家具和器物上。同样,寿花和丧花也是在过生日和办丧事时张贴的。墙花和顶棚花是布置房间时分别贴在墙上和屋顶上的。总之,它们大都是用作布置环境,增强节庆气氛,贴在庭院、居室或器具上的。 剪纸的内容是很有讲究的。吉祥图案寓意吉祥辟邪,娃娃、葫芦、莲花等象征多子多福,家禽家畜,瓜果鱼虫是农民熟悉的对象,也是他们表现的主要内容。剪纸作为一种民间艺术,具有很强的地域风格。陕西窗花风格粗朴豪放,单纯简练,河北蔚县和山西广灵剪纸加染色彩,浓厚中透着秀美艳丽。其戏曲人物尤具特色。江苏南京剪纸淳厚,粗中有巧,宜兴剪纸华丽工整,南通剪纸秀丽玲珑。广东佛山剪纸色彩富丽、手法多变、装饰性强。山东高密剪纸细腻精巧,一丝不苟。

从一些考古遗存发现,剪纸至迟在北朝(386-581)时候就已经出现了,至今已经有一千五百年的历史了。它虽然制作简便,造形单纯,但它包容 着丰富的民俗和生活内涵,它是对许多种民间美术表现形式的浓缩和夸张,因而比较集中地体现了民间艺术的造型规律、创作构思及作品的形式特征。对民间剪纸的了解和研究,是通向欣赏和认识繁杂多样的民间美术的捷径。
 

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