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Home Living in China Chinese Law Law of Civil Procedure of the People's Republic of China
Law of Civil Procedure of the People's Republic of China
Chinese Law
Law of Civil Procedure of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国民事诉讼法

(Adopted by the fourth session of the seventh National People's Congress on 9th April 1991)


Part One General Principles


Chapter I. Tasks, Scope of Application and Basic Principles


Article 1. The Law of Civil Procedure of the PRC takes the Constitution as its basis. It is enacted in the light of China's experience in handling civil cases and the actual conditions.


Article 2. The tasks of the Law of Civil Procedure of the PRC are to protect the party from a lawsuit in exercising its litigant rights and to ensure that the People's Court establishes the truth based on facts, distinguishes right from wrong, applies laws correctly, handles civil cases promptly, ascertains the relationship between civil rights and obligations, takes sanctions against civil violations, safeguards the legitimate rights and interests of the party to a lawsuit, educates the citizens to abide conscientiously by the law, safeguards social and economic order and ensures the smooth progress of socialist construction.


Article 3. Provisions of the Law apply to civil lawsuits between citizens, between legal persons and between other organizations, as well as among them, filed because of property and personal relationship, and are handled by the People's Court.


Article 4. Civil proceedings within the territory of the PRC shall abide by this Law.


Article 5. In filing a lawsuit and responding to a lawsuit in the People's Court, foreigners, people without nationality, foreign enterprises and other organizations shall have the same equal litigant rights and obligations as the citizens, legal persons and other organizations of the PRC.


Should the court of a foreign country restrict the civil litigant rights of the citizens, legal persons and other organizations of the PRC, the People's Court of the PRC shall exercise a reciprocal principle on the civil litigant rights of the citizens, enterprises and other organizations of that country.


Article 6. The judicial authority over civil cases is exercised by the People's Court.


In civil proceedings, the People's Court administers justice independently according to law, subject to no interference by administrative organs, organizations or individuals.


Article 7. In civil proceedings, the People's Court shall base itself on facts and take the law as the criterion.


Article 8. In civil proceedings, the litigants shall have equal litigant rights. In handling a civil case, the People's Court shall ensure and make it convenient for the litigants to exercise their litigant rights; in the application of the law, the litigants are deemed as equals.


Article 9. In civil proceedings, the People's Court shall promote mediation in accordance with the principle of voluntariness and legitimacy; a court decision shall be made promptly when mediation has failed.


Article 10. In civil proceedings, the People's Court practices the system of collegiate bench, withdrawal and public trial, and the system of two instances, the first and the final.


Article 11. Citizens of all nationalities have the right to use their own languages, spoken or written, in civil proceedings.


In districts compactly inhabited by a minority nationality or by a number of nationalities, the People's Court shall hear cases and issue legal documents in the commonly used language in the locality.


The People's Court shall provide interpretation for a litigant participant unacquainted with the spoken or written language commonly used in the locality.


Article 12. When the People's Court is hearing a civil case, the litigant has the right of debate.


Article 13. Litigants have the right of disposing of their own civil rights and litigant rights within the limits prescribed by law.


Article 14. The People's Procuratorate has the right of legal supervision over the trials of civil cases.


Article 15. Organs, social organizations, enterprises and institutions may support the injured units or individuals to file a suit with the People's Court against acts that damaged the civil rights or interests of the state, collectives or individuals.


Article 16. The People's Mediation Committee is a mass organization that mediates civil disputes under the guidance of the ground-level people's government and ground-level people's court.


The People's Mediation Committee conducts mediation according to the law and the principle of voluntariness. Litigants shall honor the agreement reached through mediation; those who do not wish to mediate, or fail to reconcile their difference, or go back on their word, may file a suit at the People's Court.


The People's Court shall correct any violations of law committed by the People's Mediation Committee during mediation.


Article 17. The People's Congress of ethnic autonomous regions may draft flexible or supplementary provisions in accordance with the principles incorporated in the Constitution and this Law, as well as the specific ethnic conditions in their localities. The provisions of an autonomous region shall be reported to the NPC Standing Committee for ratification. The provisions of an autonomous prefecture and county shall be reported to the standing committee of the provincial or autonomous regional people's congress for ratification, and to the NPC Standing Committee for the record.



Chapter II. Jurisdiction


Section One: Differentiated Jurisdiction


Article 18. Unless otherwise stipulated in this Law, the ground-level people's court is competent to rule on the first instance of civil cases.


Article 19. The intermediate people's court is competent to rule on the first instance of the following cases


(1) Major cases involving foreigners;


(2) Cases of great impact within its jurisdiction;


(3) Cases determined by the Supreme People's Court as coming under its jurisdiction.


Article 20. The Higher People's Court is competent to rule on the first instance of civil cases having great impact within its jurisdiction.


Article 21. The Supreme People's Court is competent to rule on the first instance of the following civil cases


(1) Cases having great impact nationwide;


(2) Cases it deems necessary to try.


Section Two: Regional Jurisdiction


Article 22. A civil suit against a citizen comes under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the defendant is domiciled; where the defendant's domicile and regular abode is different, the case comes under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of his regular abode.


A civil suit against an institution or any other organization comes under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the defendant is registered.


When the domiciles and regular abodes of several defendants in the same civil suit come under the jurisdiction of two or more people's courts, they all have the right of jurisdiction.


Article 23. The following civil suits come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the plaintiff is domiciled; where the plaintiff's domicile and regular abode is different, the case comes under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of his regular abode


(1) Actions concerning the identity of persons who do not reside within the domain of the PRC;


(2) Actions concerning the identity of persons whose whereabouts are unknown or who have been declared missing;


(3) Actions against persons undergoing re-education through labor;


(4) Actions against persons in prison.


Article 24. Actions arising from disputes over contracts come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of their signing or the place of their implementation.


Article 25. The two parties to a contract may specify in writing, the jurisdiction of the people's court of their choice with regard to the defendant's registered address, the place for honoring the contract, the place where the contract is signed, the plaintiff's registered address and the place of the tendered object, but they must not violate the provisions on differentiated jurisdiction and special jurisdiction in this Law.


Article 26. Actions arising from disputes over insurance contracts come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of the defendant's registered address, or at the place of the insured objects.


Article 27. Actions arising from disputes over negotiable instruments come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where the payment is to be made, or at the place where the defendant domiciled.


Article 28. Actions arising from disputes over contracts concerning rail, road, water, air or through transportation come under the jurisdiction of people's court at the place of departure, destination or the place where the defendant is registered.


Article 29. Actions against acts of encroachment come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where such acts are committed or at the place where the defendant is domiciled.


Articles 30. Actions claiming compensation for damage arising from rail, road, water and air accidents come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where such accidents occurred, or at the place where the vehicles or ships first arrived, or at the place where the aircraft first landed, or at the place where the defendant is registered.


Article 31. Actions claiming compensation for damage from ship collisions or other maritime accidents come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place where such collisions took place, or at the port where the damaged ship first arrived, or at the port where the ship responsible for the damage is detained or registered.


Article 32. Actions claiming salvage money come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of the salvage or at the port where the salvaged ship first arrived.


Article 33. Actions claiming common sea damage come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the port where the ship first arrived, or at the place where common sea damage is settled, or at the port where the journey ends.


Article 34. The following cases come under the special jurisdiction of the people's court provided for by this article:


(1) Actions started on account of disputes over immovable property come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of the immovable property;


(2) Actions started on account of disputes arising from harbor operations come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of the harbor;


(3) Actions started on account of disputes over inheriting property come under the jurisdiction of the people's court at the place of the residence of the benefactor at the time of his death or the place of the principal property.


Article 35. Where an action comes under the jurisdiction of two or more people's courts, the plaintiff may file a suit at any of them; where the plaintiff brings an action with two or more people's courts which are competent, the case shall be handled by the people's court that is the first to place the case on file.


Section Three: Transferred Jurisdiction and Designated Jurisdiction


Article 36. When a people's court becomes aware that the case it is handling does not come under its jurisdiction, it shall transfer the case to the competent people's court which shall handle the case. When a people's court considers that, according to the rules, it does not have the right of jurisdiction over a case referred to it, it shall request the superior people's court level to designate the jurisdiction and shall make no further transfer by itself.


Article 37. Where the competent people's court is unable to perform its right of jurisdiction on special accounts.


Where the right of jurisdiction is in dispute between people's courts, it shall be resolved through consultation by the two parties involved; where consultation has failed, they shall request their common superior people's court to designate the jurisdiction.


Article 38. Where a party has an objection to the right of jurisdiction after the case is accepted by the people's court, the party shall raise its objection at the time of submitting a written reply. The people's court shall examine the objection raised by the party. Where the objection is tenable, a ruling shall be made to transfer the case to the competent people's court; where the objection is untenable, it shall reject the objection.


Article 39. A superior people's court has the right to conduct as the first instance the trial of a civil case which is under the jurisdiction of an inferior people's court; it may also refer a civil case under its own jurisdiction of first instance to an inferior people's court for trial.


Where an inferior people's court considers that a civil case of first instance under its jurisdiction should be tried by a superior people's court, it may request that the case be referred to the latter.



Chapter III. Trial Group


Article 40. In civil cases of first instance in the people's court, justice is administered by a collegiate bench made up of either judges and assessors, or only of judges. Members of the collegiate bench must total an odd number.


In civil cases where simple procedures are applicable, justice is administered by one judge independently.


Assessors during the exercise of their functions have equal rights and obligations with the judges.


Article 41. In civil cases of second instance in the people's court, justice is administered by a collegiate bench made up of judges. Members of the collegiate bench must total an odd number. The trial de novo of a case returned shall be conducted by a newly organized collegiate bench in the trial court in accordance with the procedure of first instance.


A case originally of first instance shall be tried de novo by a newly organized collegiate bench in accordance with the procedure of first instance; a case originally of second instance shall be tried de novo by a newly organized collegiate bench in accordance with the procedure of second instance.


Article 42. The presiding judge of the collegiate bench shall be appointed by the president of the court or by a chief judge from among the judges; where the president of the court or the chief judge takes part in the trial, he shall act as the presiding judge.


Article 43. The principle of the minority being subordinate to the majority is followed in the deliberation of the collegiate bench. The minutes of the deliberation shall be made and signed by all members of the collegiate bench. Differing opinions must be recorded accurately.


Article 44. Judges shall handle cases impartially and in accordance with the law.


Judges may not accept dinner invitations or gifts from the litigants or their legal representatives.


The legal liability of judges, who take bribes, practice favouritism, engage in fraudulent practices and bend the law in administering justice, shall be pursued. In cases where such acts constitute crimes, the criminal liability involved shall be investigated pursuant to the law.



Chapter IV. Withdrawal


Article 45. In any of the following circumstances, a judge must withdraw from the exercise of his functions, and a litigant is entitled to challenge him in verbal or written form


(1) Where he is a litigant in the case or a close relative of a litigant or his legal representative;


(2) Where he has an interest in the case;


(3) Where he has other relations with a litigant, which may affect fairness in the administration of justice.


The provisions of the preceding paragraph are applicable to recording clerks, interpreters, expert witnesses and inspectors.


Article 46. In challenging, a litigant shall submit the reasons at the beginning of the hearing; where the cause of the withdrawal is learned after the hearing commences, the challenge may be raised before the conclusion of arguments in court.


Except for emergency measures required by the case, the person who is thus challenged shall temporarily stop exercising his functions in the case before a people's court makes a decision on the challenge.


Article 47. The withdrawal of a court president who serves as the presiding judge shall be decided by a judicial committee, while that of a judge shall be decided by the president; the withdrawal of other personnel shall be decided by the presiding judge.


Article 48. A people's court shall make a verbal or written decision on a litigant's application for withdrawal within three days of filing the application. If the applicant is dissatisfied with the decision, he may apply for reconsideration upon receipt of the decision. During the period of reconsideration, the person who is challenged shall not stop exercising his functions in the case. The people's court shall make a decision on reconsideration and notify the applicant accordingly within three days of receiving the application.



Chapter V. Litigant Participants


Section One: Litigants


Article 49. Citizens, legal persons and other organizations may act as litigants in civil proceedings.


A legal person shall be represented by his legal representative in the proceedings, while other organizations shall be represented by their principal leaders.


Article 50. A litigant has the right to entrust his representative with applying for withdrawal, collecting and presenting evidence, taking part in arguments, requesting mediation, filing an appeal and requesting execution.


A litigant may inspect materials pertaining to the case, and copy such materials and legal documents. The extent to which materials pertaining to the case can be inspected and copied, and the methods for doing so, shall be specified by the Supreme People's Court.


A litigant must exercise his rights in accordance with the law, observe procedural order, and implement any legally binding verdict, ruling and mediation agreement.


Article 51. Litigants of the two parties may reconcile of their own accord.


Article 52. The plaintiff may abandon or alter his request for litigation. The defendant may admit or retort the request, and has the right to file a counter suit.


Article 53. A joinder is a case in which the litigants of one or both parties involve two or more people with common litigant objects or objects of the same type, and which a people's court deems appropriate to handle together after obtaining the litigants' consent.


Where the litigants of one party in a joinder have common rights and obligations regarding the litigant objects, the litigant acts of one of them are binding on the others if the latter recognize the acts; where the litigants have no common rights or obligations regarding the litigant objects, the litigant acts of any of them are not binding on the others.


Article 54. The litigants of one party involving many people in a joinder may name a representative to handle the litigation. The representative's litigant acts are binding on the litigants he represents. However, the consent of the litigants thus represented must be obtained when it comes to changing the representative, abandoning the request for litigation, recognizing the other party's request for litigation and seeking reconciliation.


Article 55. Where a case exists in which the litigants are two or more in number with litigant objectives of the same type, but the exact number is still not determined at the time of litigation, the people's court may issue a public notice explaining the case and litigant request and notifying those who have the right to join the litigation to register with the people's court within a prescribed period.


The registered litigants may elect a representative; if they are unable to elect a representative, the court shall choose a representative through consultation with the registered litigants.


The litigation acts of the representative are binding on the litigants he represents. When the representative acts to alter or abandon the litigant request, recognize the litigant request of the other party, or reconcile, he must have the approval of the litigants he represents.


The judgment or ruling of the people's court is binding on all the registered individuals who have the right to join; it is also binding on those with the right to join who did not take part in the registration but apply to start an action within the prescribed litigation period.


Article 56. A third party who deems himself entitled to an independent request with regard to the litigant objectives of both parties has the right to start an action.


Where a third party is not entitled to an independent request as regards the litigant objectives in dispute, but is legally interested in the results of the civil proceedings, he may apply to take part in the action or the people's court may notify him to do so. A third


party who is ordered to accept civil responsibility by the people's court has the rights and obligations of a litigant.


Section Two: Litigant Representatives


Article 57. Where the litigant is incapable of litigant action, he may be represented by his legal representative; where he has no legal representatives, the people's court shall appoint a representative for him. Where the legal representatives shirk the representation responsibilities among themselves, the people's court shall appoint one of them to represent the litigant in the action.


Article 58. Litigants or legal representatives may entrust one or two persons to represent them in the action.


Lawyers, close relatives of the litigants, persons recommended by social organizations or the units where the litigants work, or other citizens approved by the people's court may be entrusted as litigant representatives.


Article 59. Where a representative is entrusted in the action, a letter of attorney signed or sealed by the party that entrusted the representative must be presented to the people's court.


The letter of attorney must list the items of trust and the limit of powers. Where the litigant representative acts to recognize, abandon or alter the litigant request, lodge a counter-charge or file an appeal, he must have the special authorization of the represented.


The letter of attorney from a Chinese citizen residing abroad must be certified by the Chinese embassy or consulate in the said country. If there is no Chinese embassy or consulate, it should be certified by the embassy or consulate of a third country that has diplomatic relations with China and then delivered to the Chinese embassy or consulate in that third country for certification, or it may be certified by a patriotic overseas Chinese organization.


Article 60. Where the power of a litigant representative is changed or removed, the litigant shall inform the people's court in writing, and the latter shall notify the litigant of the other party.


Article 61. Lawyers acting as litigant representatives or other representatives of the litigant have the rights to investigate, collect evidence and inspect the files of the case in question. The scope and procedure for inspecting the files of the case in question shall be formulated by the Supreme People's Court.


Article 62. The parties involved in divorce cases shall appear before the court, except those incapable of expressing themselves, even though there are litigant representatives; where the party is unable to appear before the court in special circumstances, he or she must present his or her views in written form to the people's court.



Chapter VI. Evidence


Article 63. Evidence falls into the following categories


(1) Documentary evidence;


(2) Material evidence;


(3) Video and audio material;


(4) Testimony of witnesses;


(5) Statement by litigants;


(6) Conclusion of expert corroborations;


(7) Records of inspection.


T SIZE="-1">None of the aforementioned evidence shall serve as the basis of establishment of facts before it has been ascertained and verified.


Article 64. Litigants are obliged to present evidence for their assertions.


The people's court shall investigate and collect evidence which litigants and their representatives cannot collect because of objective reasons, or evidence which the people's court deems necessary for the hearing.


The people's court shall, in accordance with the legal procedure, examine and verify the evidence fully and objectively.


Article 65. The people's court has the right to acquire evidence from the relevant units and individuals, and they shall not refuse it.


The people's court shall examine the documents provided as evidence by relevant units and individuals, distinguish the true from the false and determine validity.


Article 66. The evidence shall be displayed and cross-examined by the litigants at the court. Evidence involving state secrets, commercial secrets and personal secrets shall be kept confidential. Where it is necessary to display such evidence, it shall not be done in public hearing.


Article 67. The people's court shall acknowledge the validity of legal acts, legal facts and documents that have been notarized through legal procedure, except those that can be overturned by counter-evidence.


Article 68. Originals shall be presented as documentary or material evidence. Where there is indeed difficulty in presenting the originals, reproductions, photos, copies or abridged versions may be presented.


Documentary evidence in foreign languages must be accompanied by a Chinese translation.


Article 69. The people's court shall distinguish the true from the false video and audio material, and, in conjunction with other evidence, determine whether they can serve as the basis for the establishment of facts.


Article 70. Whoever knows something about the case in question has the obligation to testify at the hearing. Leaders of the relevant units shall support the witnesses to testify. Where the witness has difficulty in appearing at a hearing, he may present written testimony upon the permission of the people's court.


Those who are unable to express themselves accurately are unqualified to act as witnesses.


Article 71. The people's court shall examine the statement of a litigant in the light of the other evidence in the case and determine whether it can serve as the basis of establishment of a fact.


Where a litigant refuses to make a statement, it shall not affect the establishment of facts in the case by the people's court on the basis of the evidence.


Article 72. When the people's court needs to corroborate special problems, it shall refer them to a legal corroboratory department; where there is no legal corroboratory department, the people's court shall designate a corroboratory department.


The corroboratory department and its designated expert witness have the right to acquaint themselves with the files of the case requiring corroboration, and question the litigants and witnesses when necessary.


The corroboratory department and the expert witness shall submit a written conclusion of corroboration and sign or seal the corroboration bill. Where it is corroborated by an expert witness, the bill shall be sealed by the unit where he works to prove his identity.


Article 73. In inspecting material evidence or the scene, the inspector must produce the document of the people's court and invite the local basic organization or the litigant's unit to send people to take part. The litigant or an adult member of his family shall be present on the scene; if he refuses to be present, it shall not affect the inspection.


The relevant units and individuals, in accordance with the notice of the people's court, have the obligation to protect the scene and assist the inspection.


The inspector shall prepare a written record of the inspection and its results, which shall be signed or sealed by the inspector, the litigant and the invited participants.


Article 74. If the evidence should possibly be destroyed or lost, or if it would be difficult to obtain afterwards, the litigant participant may request the people's court for security of evidence; the people's court may also take security measures on its own initiative.



Chapter VII. Period and Service


Section I: Period


Article 75. The period includes the legal period and the period designated by the people's court.


The period is computed in hours, days, months and years. The hour and the day from which the period begins are not included therein.


When the final day of the period falls on a holiday, the first day after the holiday shall be the date of the expiration of the period.


The period does not include the time of travel. Litigant documents which have been collected by the post office prior to the expiration of the period are not deemed to be overdue.


Article 76. Where the time limit has been exceeded owing to force majeure or other legitimate grounds, the litigant may, within 10 days after the obstacle is removed, request an extension of the time limit; the people's court shall decide on granting such a request.


Section II: Service


Article 77. The service of litigant documents must be accompanied by a certificate of delivery upon which the addressee shall mark the date of delivery and sign or seal.


The delivery date marked by the addressee on the certificate of delivery is the date of service.


Article 78. Litigant documents shall be delivered directly to the addressee in person. When the addressee is a citizen and is absent, the documents may be delivered to an adult member of his family who lives with him, and he shall sign upon delivery; when the addressee is a legal person or other organizations, the legal representative of the legal person, the principal persons in charge of the organizations or persons delegated by them shall accept the delivery and sign on their behalf; when the addressee delegates a litigant representative, the documents shall be served upon this representative who shall sign upon delivery; and when the addressee already delegates a person on his behalf, the documents shall be served upon this person who shall sign upon delivery.


The date marked on the certificate of delivery by the adult member of the addressee's family who lives with him, by persons delegated by the legal person or other organizations, by the litigant representative or by other persons delegated to accept delivery is the date of delivery.


Article 79. When the addressee or the adult member of his family who lives with him rejects the service, the deliverer shall invite the representative of the relevant basic organization or others to the spot, give


an account of the matter, mark the particulars and the date of the refusal and sign or seal the certificate of delivery together with the witnesses, and leave the documents behind at the addressee's residence. This service is thus deemed to be effected.


Article 80. When it is difficult to effect a personal service, the litigant documents may be entrusted to another people's court for delivery or be delivered by mail. For a service by mail, the date of acceptance marked on the receipt of the mail is the date of service.


Article 81. When the addressee is a serviceman, the service shall be effected via the political organ of the unit at the regimental rank or above where he works.


Article 82. Where the addressee is in prison, the service shall be effected via the prison or reform-through-labor unit where he stays.


Where the addressee is placed under re-education through labor, the service shall be effected via the reformatory.


Article 83. The aforementioned organ or unit, upon receiving the litigant documents, must promptly forward them to the addressee, who shall sign on receipt. The date marked on the receipt is the date of delivery.


Article 84. Where the whereabouts of the addressee is unknown, or the service cannot be effected in the other ways provided for in this chapter, the service may be made by way of announcement. Sixty days after the date the announcement is made, the service is deemed to be effected.


The cause and details of the service by way of announcement shall be recorded in the files of the case.



Chapter VIII Mediation


Article 85. Where a civil case it has accepted can be mediated, the people's court shall resolve it through mediation on the basis of litigants' voluntary participation and by ascertaining the facts and distinguishing right from wrong.


Article 86. Mediation by the people's court may be presided over by a judge or a collegiate bench, and it shall be conducted on the spot as far as possible.


For the sake of mediation, the people's court may use simple ways to summon the litigants and witnesses to the court.


Article 87. The people's court may, according to the requirements of the case, invite the relevant units and people to assist in the mediation. The invited units and individuals shall assist the people's court in the mediation.


Article 88. Agreement in mediation must be reached between the two parties of their own accord and no coercion is allowed. Contents of the agreement shall not go against the law.


Article 89. The people's court shall prepare a bill of mediation for an agreement reached through mediation. The bill of mediation shall include the request of litigation, facts of the case and the results of the mediation.


The bill of mediation shall be signed by the judge and the recording clerk, sealed by the people's court and delivered to the litigants.


The bill of mediation becomes legally effective after it has been delivered to the litigants and signed by them.


Article 90. A bill of mediation prepared by the people's court may not be necessary when agreement of mediation is reached for the following cases


(1) Divorce cases in which the parties are reconciled through mediation;


(2) Adoption cases settled through mediation;


(3) Cases that become effective immediately; and


(4) Other cases for which bills of mediation are not necessary.


Where a bill of mediation is not necessary, the agreement shall be recorded and become legally effective after being signed or sealed by the litigants of the two parties, the judge and the recording clerk.


Article 91. Where mediation has failed to reach agreement or one party goes back on his word before the delivery of the bill of mediation, the people's court shall make an adjudication promptly.



Chapter IX. Custody of Property and Prior Execution


Article 92. For cases in which the act of the litigant of one party or the other makes it impossible or hard to execute the judgment, the people's court may rule for custody of property upon the application of the adverse litigant; where the litigant does not make such an application, the people's court may rule for custody of property when necessary.


In deciding to take measures for custody of property, the people's court may order the applicant to provide a guarantee; where he refuses to do so, his application shall be rejected.


Upon accepting the litigant's request for custody of property, the people's court must, in urgent cases, make a ruling within 48 hours. A ruling on the custody of property shall be executed immediately.


Article 93. In urgent cases, the party concerned whose interests are at stake, and whose legitimate rights and interests may be damaged beyond remedy


if no application for custody of property is filed immediately, may apply for custody of property with the people's court before filing an action. The applicant shall provide a guarantee; where he refuses to do so, his application shall be rejected.


Upon accepting a request, the people's court shall make a ruling on measures for custody of property within 48 hours and start execution immediately.


If the applicant fails to file an action within 15 days after the people's court takes measures for custody of property, the people's court shall lift the custody.


Article 94. Custody of property is confined to the scope of litigant request or to the property or articles related to the case in question.


Custody of property shall include seal-up, distrain, freezing and other measures provided by law.


After freezing the property, the people's court shall immediately notify the person whose property is subject to the action.


Property that has already been frozen shall not be distrained or frozen for a second time.


Article 95. Where the applying party provides guarantee, the people's court shall immediately lift the custody of property.


Article 96. If there is a mistake in the application, the applicant shall compensate the applying party for the loss in property incurred from the custody.


Article 97. In the following cases, the people's court may make a ruling for prior execution in accordance with the litigant's request


(1) Claiming alimony, costs of support or upbringing, pensions for the disabled and medical expenses;


(2) Claiming labour remuneration;


(3) Other urgent circumstances that require prior execution.


Article 98. The people's court's ruling for prior execution shall meet the following conditions


(1) The rights and obligations between the litigants are clear and the applicant's livelihood or business operation would be seriously affected if no prior execution is enforced;


(2) The applying party is capable of fulfilling the ruling.


The people's court may order the applicant to provide a guarantee; where he refuses to do so, his application shall be rejected. The applicant who loses in the suit shall compensate the other for the loss in property incurred from the custody of property.


Article 99. Where the litigant protests against the ruling for custody of property or prior execution, he may apply for reconsideration; during the reconsideration, the execution of the ruling shall not stop.



Chapter X. Coercive Measures against Hindrance to Civil Actions


Article 100. The people's court may summon coercively a defendant who must appear at the hearing, but has refused to do so without proper reason after two summons.


Article 101. The litigant participant and others shall abide by the rules of the court.


In dealing with the people who violate the rules of the court, the people's court may admonish them to leave the court, fine or detain them.


In dealing with the people who stir up a noisy uproar in court, assault the court, insult, slander, threaten and beat the judges, thus seriously disrupting the order of the court, the people's court shall subject them to criminal liability according to law; if the offence committed is not a serious one, the persons involved shall be fined or detained.


Article 102. If the litigant participant or others commit any of the following acts, the people's court may, according to the gravity of the case, fine or detain them; where the act constitutes an offence, they shall be subjected to criminal liability according to law


(1) Perjury and destruction of important evidence in order to hinder the people's court from trying a case;


(2) Obstructing witnesses to testify by resorting to the methods of violence, threat and bribery, or instructing, bribing and coercing others to falsify evidence;


(3) Concealment, transfer, sale or destruction of the property that has been sealed up or distrained, or property that has been checked and sorted out and has been ordered for safekeeping; and transfer of property that has been frozen;


(4) Insulting, slandering, framing, beating or retaliating in revenge against a judicial officer, litigant participant, witness, translator, expert witness, inspector or assistant in execution;


(5) Obstructing judicial officers in exercising their functions with violence, threats or by other means;


(6) Refusal to carry out the people's court's decisions and rulings that have already become legally effective.


In dealing with a unit that has committed one of the acts prescribed in the previous sections, the people's court may fine or detain its principal responsible person or the person directly responsible for the act; where the act constitutes an offence, he shall be subjected to criminal liability according to law.


Article 103. If a unit which is obliged to assist in investigation and execution commits one of the following acts, the people's court shall order it to carry out its assistance obligations and, in addition, may fine it


(1) Refusal or attempt by the relevant unit to hinder the people's court from carrying out investigations to


collect evidence;


(2) After receiving a notice from the people's court requesting assistance in execution, banks, credit cooperatives and other deposit-taking establishments refuse to assist in investigation, to freeze or to transfer deposits;


(3) After receiving a notice from the people's court requesting assistance in execution, a relevant unit refuses to assist in detaining the income of the person concerned and in handling the transfer of relevant property rights, relevant negotiable instrument or other certificates;


(4) Other acts of refusing to assist in execution.


In dealing with a unit that commits one of the acts prescribed in the previous sections, the people's court may fine its principal responsible person or the person directly responsible for the act; it may also put forward judicial proposals to supervisory organs or other relevant organs to take disciplinary action against such a unit.


Article 104. The fine is 1,000 yuan Renminbi at most for individuals and 1,000 yuan Renminbi at least, and 30,000 yuan at most for units.


The time limit of detention is 15 days at most.


The people's court shall commit the detainee to the public security organ for supervision. During the detention, if the detainee admits his error and repents, the people's court may decide to lift the detention ahead of time.


Article 105. Coercive summons, fines or detention must be approved by the president of the people's court.


Subpoena shall be issued for coercive summons.


Fines and detention shall be accompanied by a written decision. The party may contest the decision and request a superior people's court to reconsider it. During the period of reconsideration, the execution of the decision shall not stop.


Article 106. Decision on the adoption of compulsory measures against obstruction of proceedings shall be made only by the people's court. Any unit or individual that extorts repayment of a debt by illegal detention of a person or illegal distrainment of property shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to the law, or shall be punished with detention or a fine.



Chapter XI. Litigation Fees


Article 107. In civil proceedings, the litigant shall pay a fee for acceptance of the case in accordance with regulations. In cases involving property, other litigation fees shall be paid according to regulations, in addition to the fee for acceptance of the case.


Where there is difficulty in paying the litigation fees, the litigants may, in accordance with the regulations, apply to the people's court for postponement, reduction or exemption of the fine.


Methods of collecting the litigation fees shall be worked out separately.



Part Two Procedure of Trial


Chapter XII. Ordinary Procedure of First Instance


Section One: Starting an Action and Accepting a Case


Article 108. In starting an action, the following conditions must be met


(1) The plaintiff is a citizen, a legal person or other organization;


(2) There is an explicit plaintiff;


(3) There are concrete litigant requests, facts and reasons;


(4) The suit is a civil proceeding within the scope of jurisdiction of a people's court and under the jurisdiction of the people's court to which the suit is filed.


Article 109. In starting an action, the litigant shall present a written indictment to the people's court with copies matching the number of the defendants.


Where there is difficulty in writing an indictment, the litigant may file a suit in verbal form which the people's court shall record and notify the adverse litigant.


Article 110. The written indictment shall contain the following


(1) The name, sex, age, nationality, occupation, work unit and address of the litigant, the name and address of the legal person or other organization, and the name and position of the principal responsible person;


(2) The litigant's requests and the facts and reasons on which the requests are based;


(3) Evidence and its source, and the name and address of the witness.


Article 111. The people's court shall accept and handle any actions that meet the conditions specified in Article 108; and it shall also handle the following actions according to their different circumstances


(1) Where the case falls into the category of administrative litigation according to the Administrative Procedure Law, the plaintiff shall be informed to start an administrative litigation;


(2) When two parties concerned are no longer permitted by law to start an action with the people's court because they have already voluntarily reached a written agreement on settling their contract dispute through arbitration by an arbitrator, the litigant shall be informed to make the arbitration request;


(3) Where there is a dispute which, according to law, should be handled by other organs, the plaintiff shall be informed to present the case to the relevant organ;


(4) If a people's court has no jurisdiction over a certain case, the litigant shall be informed to present the case to the people's court that has the jurisdiction over the case.


(5) Where the litigant starts a second action for a case in which a judgment of ruling has already become legally effective, the litigant shall be informed that the case shall be dealt with as an appeal, with the exception of any case in which the people's court has approved the withdrawal of the suit; (6) Where an action is started within the limitation for which no suit is allowed according to law, it shall not be accepted;


(7) A new suit for divorce or for termination of adoption relations shall not be accepted if it is filed within six months without new situations or reasons after a judgment of no-divorce is made or the litigants decide to make up through mediation, or after a judgment on maintaining the adoption relations is made or the litigants decide to maintain the adoption relations through mediation.


Article 112. Upon receiving a written or verbal indictment, the people's court shall file a case and inform the litigants of the acceptance of the case within seven days where it meets the conditions for acceptance and hearing after examination; where it does not meet the conditions for acceptance and hearing, the people's court shall inform the plaintiff of this within seven days and explain the reason. If the plaintiff is not satisfied with the court decision, he may appeal.


Section Two: Pre-Hearing Preparations


Article 113. The people's court shall, within five days of filing a case, send a copy of the indictment to the defendant; the defendant shall, within 15 days of receiving the copy, present a written reply.


The people's court shall, within five days of receiving the defendant's reply, send a copy of the reply to the plaintiff. Where the defendant does not present a written reply, it shall not affect the hearing by the people's court.


Article 114. After the people's court decides to accept a case, it should inform the litigants of their rights and obligations, either verbally or in its notice of accepting the case and notice to the defendants.


Article 115. The litigants should be informed of the composition of the collegiate bench within three days of deciding the composition.


Article 116. The judge must seriously peruse the litigant files, make investigation and study, and collect necessary evidence.


Article 117. The investigator sent by the people's court shall show the certificate of identity to the investigated.


Records of the investigation shall be checked by the investigated and signed or sealed by the investigated and the investigator.


Article 118. Where necessary, the people's court may entrust a people's court in another place with the investigation.


In entrusting the investigation, the people's court must present the items and requirements in clear-cut terms. The entrusted people's court may take the initiative to make supplementary investigation.


Upon receiving the letter of attorney, the entrusted people's court shall complete the investigation within 30 days; where it cannot be done for one reason or another, the entrusted people's court shall inform the trustor in writing within the above-mentioned time limit.


Article 119. Where the litigants who must take part in the proceedings together do not do so, the people's court shall notify them to take part in the proceedings.


Section Three: Hearing


Article 120. All civil cases in the people's court shall be heard in public except those involving state secrets, personal shameful secrets or those otherwise provided for by law.


Divorce cases and cases involving commercial secrets may be heard in private if the litigants so request.


Article 121. In civil proceedings, the people's court shall, where necessary and possible, dispatch itinerant tribunals to hear cases on the spot.


Article 122. In civil proceedings, the people's court shall notify the litigants and other litigant participants three days before the hearing. For public hearing, the people's court shall make public the names of the litigants, the subject matter of the case and the time and place of the court session.


Article 123. Before the hearing, the recording clerk shall ascertain whether the litigants and other litigant participants are present, and announce the discipline of the court.


At the opening of the hearing, the presiding judge shall check the litigants, announce the subject matter of the case, announce the names of the judicial officers and the recording clerk, inform the litigants of their litigant rights and obligations, and inquire whether they wish to apply for withdrawal.


Article 124. The court investigation proceeds in the following order


(1) Hear litigants' statements;


(2) Inform the witnesses of their rights and obligations; interrogate the witnesses and read aloud the testimony of the witnesses who fail to appear before the court;


(3) Display documentary evidence, material evidence and video and audio information;


(4) Read aloud the conclusion of the expert corroboration;


(5) Read aloud the written record of the inspection.


Article 125. The litigant may present new evidence at the court. With the permission of the court, the litigant may question the witnesses, the expert witness and the inspector.


The litigant may request another expert corroboration, investigation or inspection. It is up to the people's court to decide whether the request is permitted or not.


Article 126. Where the plaintiff adds litigant requests, the defendant raises a counter-claim and a third party raises a litigant request related to the case in question, they may be heard in combination.


Article 127. The court debate proceeds in the following order


(1) Speech by the plaintiff and his litigant representatives;


(2) Reply by the defendant and his litigant representative;


(3) Speech or reply by the third party and his litigant representative;


(4) Debate between the two parties.


At the conclusion of the debate, the presiding judge asks first the plaintiff, then the defendant and then the third party, for their final say.


Article 128. After the conclusion of the debate in the court, the court shall render a judgment according to law. Mediation may be made before a judgment is rendered. If mediation fails, a judgment shall be pronounced promptly.


Article 129. Where the plaintiff refuses to appear before the court without proper reason after being summoned by the people's court, or he leaves the court session halfway without permission, the court may deal with it as a case revolved; if it is a counter-claim by the defendant, the court may render a judgment by default.


Article 130. Where the defendant refuses to appear before the court without proper reason after being summoned by the people's court, or he leaves the court session halfway without permission, the court may render a judgment by default.


Article 131. Where the plaintiff applies to revolve the action before the judgment is pronounced, the people's court shall rule whether it is permitted.


Where the people's court rules against resolving the action, and the plaintiff refuses to appear before the court without proper reason after being summoned, the people's court may render a judgment by default.


Article 132. A hearing shall be postponed in any of the following circumstances


(1) Where the litigant and other litigant participants who must appear before the court are absent with proper reason;


(2) Where the litigant suddenly submits a request to challenge the hearing;


(3) Where a new witness is to be summoned, new exhibits are to be produced, a recorroboration or reinspection is required or a supplementary investigation is deemed necessary;


(4) Other circumstances that entail a postponement of the hearing.


Article 133. The clerk shall enter all the proceedings of the court session in the record, which shall be signed by the judges and the recording clerk.


The court record shall be read aloud before the court, or the court may inform the litigants and other litigant participants to peruse the record there and then or within five days. They have the right to request an addition or a correction where they find an omission or error in their statements. If the correction is not made, their request shall be recorded on the files.


The court record shall be signed or sealed by the litigants and other litigant participants; if anyone of them refuses to do so, it shall be marked and put into the files.


Article 134. The people's court shall publish the judgments of all its cases heard either in public or in private.


Where a judgment is pronounced at the hearing, a copy of the written judgment shall be delivered within 10 days; where a judgment is pronounced on a fixed date, a copy of the written judgment shall be issued immediately after the pronouncement.


When a judgment is pronounced, the litigant must be informed of his right to appeal, of the time limitation, and of the competent appellant court.


When a judgment is pronounced in a divorce case, the litigants must be informed that neither shall marry again before the judgment becomes legally effective.


Article 135. A case that is heard by the people's court in accordance with the ordinary procedure shall be concluded within six months from the day the case is filed. In special circumstances the time limitation may be extended by another six months with the approval of the president of the court; approval from the people's court at the higher level is needed for further extension.


Section Four: Suspension and Termination of an Action


Article 136. A litigant action shall be suspended in any of the following circumstances


(1) Where the litigant of one party dies, and it is necessary to wait for his heir to indicate whether or not he wants to take part in the proceedings;


(2) Where the litigant of one party loses his capacity to conduct litigation, and a legal representative is yet to be determined; (3) Where the legal person or other organization serving as litigant of one party is terminated, and a person to undertake its responsibility and obligation is not yet determined;


(4) Where the litigant of one party cannot take part in the proceedings because of force majeure;


(5) Where the case in question must base itself on the outcome of another case whose hearings have not yet concluded; and


(6) Where there are other circumstances which entail suspension of the action.


The litigant procedure shall resume after the cause of the suspension is removed.


Article 137. A litigant action shall terminate in any of the following circumstances


(1) Where the plaintiff dies without an heir, or the heir renounces his litigant right;


(2) Where the defendant dies without leaving any property or there is no person to undertake the obligation;


(3) Where the litigant of one party dies in a divorce case; and


(4) Where the litigant of one party dies in a case involving the claiming of alimony or costs of support or upbringing, or termination of relations of adoption.


Section Five: Judgment and Ruling


Article 138. A written judgment shall clearly state the following


(1) The subject matter of the case, the litigant's request and the facts and reasons in dispute;


(2) The facts established by the judgment, the reasons and the law applied;


(3) The results of the judgment and the bearer of the litigation costs; and


(4) The time limit for appeal and the competent appellant court. The written judgment shall be signed by the judge and the recording clerk, and sealed by the people's court.


Article 139. Where part of the facts involved in a case under hearing is clear, the people's court may make a judgment first on that part.


Article 140. A ruling applies to the following scope


(1) Not accepting the case;


(2) Regarding objections on the ground of jurisdiction;


(3) Rejecting a suit;


(4) Regarding custody of property and prior execution;


(5) Approving or disapproving the revolving of a suit;


(6) Suspending or terminating an action;


(7) Adding an omission or correcting an error in the written judgment;


(8) Suspending or terminating execution;


(9) Not enforcing a verdict reached through arbitration;


(10) Not enforcing credit documents which a notary public has granted the effectiveness of forcible execution; and


(11) Other items which require solution by a ruling.


An appeal may be filed against a ruling in Items 1, 2 and 3.


A written ruling shall be signed by the judge and the recording clerk, and sealed by the people's court. A verbal ruling shall be entered in the record.


Article 141. A judgment or ruling by the Supreme People's Court and a judgment or ruling which permits no appeal according to law or against which no appeal is filed beyond the limitation becomes a legally effective judgment or ruling.



Chapter XIII. Simple Procedure


Article 142. Provisions in this chapter apply where a basic people's court and the tribunals dispatched by it handle simple civil cases in which the facts are clear, and rights and obligations are clearly specified, and which are not very controversial.


Article 143. In simple civil cases, the plaintiff may indict verbally.


The litigants of the two parties may simultaneously apply for a solution of their dispute at a basic people's court or a tribunal dispatched by it. The basic people's court or the tribunals dispatched by it may hear the case promptly, or fix a date for the hearing.


Article 144. In handling simple cases, the basic people's court and the tribunals dispatched by it may employ simple means to summon the litigants and witnesses at any time.


Article 145. In simple civil cases, justice is administered by one judge independently, not subject to the restrictions provided by Articles 122, 124 and 127 of this law.


Article 146. The hearing of a case which the people's court can handle with simple procedure should be concluded within three months from the day it is placed on file.



Chapter XIV. Procedure of Second Instance


Article 147. A litigant contesting a judgment of first instance rendered by a local people's court has the right to appeal to the people's court at the next higher level within 15 days upon the delivery of the court verdict.


Article 148. A written appeal shall be submitted in making an appeal. A written appeal shall include the name of the litigant, the name of the legal person and its legal representative, or the names of other organizations and the names of their principal persons


in charge, the name of the trial court, the serial number and the subject matter of the case, the requests and reasons.


Article 149. A written appeal shall be submitted to the trial court with copies corresponding to the number of adverse litigants.


Where a litigant appeals directly to the people's court sitting as the court of second instance, the latter shall, within five days, send copies of the appeal to the trial court.


Article 150. The trial court shall, within five days of receiving the appeal, send a copy to the adverse litigant, who shall submit a written reply within 15 days of receiving the copy. The people's court shall, within five days of receiving the written reply, send a copy to the appellor. Where a litigant does not submit a reply, it shall not affect the court hearing.


The trial court, having received the appeal and the reply, shall report this to the people's court of second instance together with all the files and exhibits within five days.


Article 151. The court of second instance shall examine facts and laws relevant to the above- mentioned appeal.


Article 152. A collegiate bench shall be formed by the court of second instance for the appellant case to hold a hearing. Where the collegiate bench, having perused the files and made investigation, questioned the litigants and checked the facts, deems it unnecessary to hold a hearing, it may render a judgment without a hearing.


In trying an appellant case, the people's court of second instance may conduct the hearing in its own court, or at the place of the occurrence of the case, or the place of the trial court.


Article 153. Having held hearings, the people's court of second instance shall deal with the appellant cases according to the following circumstances


(1) Render a judgment rejecting the appeal and affirming the original judgment where the ascertainment of facts in the original judgment is found to be clear and the application of law is found to be correct;


(2) Render a new judgment according to law where the application of law is in a way erroneous;


(3) Reverse the original judgment by a ruling and turn the case back to the trial court for a retrial or render a new judgment after further ascertainment of facts where the original judgment is found to be based on unclear facts and insufficient evidence;


(4) Reverse the original judgment by a ruling and turn the case back to the original trial court for a retrial where the original judgment is found to have violated legal procedure, and may have prejudiced the passing of a correct judgment.


The litigants may appeal against a judgment or a ruling derived from the retrial.


Article 154. The people's court of second instance shall use ruling in all cases of appealing against a ruling of first instance.


Article 155. The people's court of second instance may resolve appellant cases through mediation. Where agreement is reached through mediation, a bill of mediation shall be prepared, to be signed by the judge and the recording clerk and sealed by the people's court. Upon the service of the bill of mediation, the judgment of the trial court shall be regarded as reversed.


Article 156. Where the appellor requests to revoke the appeal before the people's court of second instance pronounces a judgment, it shall be decided by a ruling of the people's court of second instance.


Article 157. In addition to the provisions of this chapter, the ordinary procedure of first instance applies where the people's court of second instance tries appellant cases.


Article 158. A judgment or ruling by the people's court of second instance is one of final instance.


Article 159. The people's court shall complete handling resolved appellant cases within three months after they have been placed on files for second instance. Where an extension of time is needed because of special situation, the approval shall be granted by the president of the court.


The people's court, in handling appellant cases for which a ruling has been made, shall make a final ruling within 30 days after they have been placed on files for second instance.



Chapter XV. Special Procedure


Section One: General Provisions


Article 160. Provisions of this chapter apply where the people's court handles cases regarding the credentials of electors, the pronouncement of the death of a missing person, the ascertainment of a citizen's incapacity or restriction of his capacity for civil acts, or the ascertainment of ownerless property. Where no provision is laid in this chapter, the relevant provisions of this law and other laws apply.


Article 161. The system of one instance, the final, shall be followed in the cases handled according to the procedure prescribed in this chapter. Cases regarding the credentials of electors or important, complicated cases shall be tried by a collegiate bench made up of judges; other cases shall be tried by one judge independently.


Article 162. Where the people's court finds the case being handled according to the procedure prescribed in this chapter is a dispute over civil rights and interests, it shall make a ruling to terminate the special procedure and inform the interested parties to start a separate action.


Article 163. The handling of cases which can be dealt with by the people's court with special procedure shall be completed within 30 days, starting from the day they were placed on file, or within 30 days after the period of their announcements expire. Where an extension is necessary because of a special situation, the approval shall be made by the president of the court. Cases of handling the credentials of electors are exceptions.


Section Two: Cases Regarding the Register of Electors


Article 164. A citizen who contests the decision of an election committee as to his objection to the credentials of electors may file a suit at the basic people's court at the place of the electoral district five days prior to the election.


Article 165. The people's court, having accepted a case regarding the credentials of electors, must hold a hearing before the election.


At the hearing, the suitor, the representative of the election committee, and the relevant citizen must be present.


A written judgment of the people's court shall be served promptly on the election committee and the suitor, and the relevant citizens shall be notified, prior to the election day.


Section Three: Cases of Pronouncing Missing Persons, or Pronouncing Death


Article 166. An interested party shall apply for the pronouncement of the death of a person, who has disappeared for two years, at the basic people's court at the place of final residence of the missing person.


The written application shall clearly state the facts and time of the disappearance and the requests, accompanied by a written certificate issued by a public security organ or other organs confirming the fact of the missing citizen in question.


Article 167. An interested party shall apply for the pronouncement of the death of a person, who has disappeared for four years, or who has disappeared for two years after an accident, or whose whereabouts is unknown after an accident, at the basic people's court at the place of final residence of the missing person, with relevant authorities' proof that the citizen in question cannot possibly survive.


The written application shall clearly state the facts and time of the disappearance and the requests, accompanied by a written certificate issued by a public security organ or other organs confirming the fact of the missing citizen in question.


Article 168. The people's court, having accepted a case of pronouncing the death or disappearance of a person, shall issue a public notice to look for the person. The period of the public notice for a missing person is three months; that of the death of a person is 1 year. Where a person is missing in an accident and a a relevant organization has ascertained the impossibility of survival, the period of the public notice is three months.


Upon the expiration of the period of the public notice, the people's court, on the basis of whether the fact of the death of the person or missing is confirmed or not, shall make a judgment to pronounce the person dead or missing or to reject the application.


Article 169. Where a person who has been pronounced dead or missing reappears and he himself or an interested party applies, the people's court shall render a new judgment and reverse the previous judgment.


Section Four: Cases of Ascertaining Citizens' Incapacity or Restricted Capacity for Civil Action


Article 170. An application for ascertainment of a citizen's incapacity or restricted capacity for civil action shall be raised by a close relative or other interested party at the basic people's court in the place of the residence of the citizen in question.


The written application shall clearly state the facts about and the grounds for the incapacity or restricted capacity of the citizen in question.


Article 171. Where necessary, the people's court, having accepted the application for ascertainment of a citizen's incapacity or restricted capacity for civil action, shall conduct a corroboration on the citizen in question. Where the applicant has provided a conclusion of expert corroboration, the people's court shall examine the conclusion.


Article 172. Where necessary, in handling a case of ascertainment of a citizen's incapacity and restricted capacity for civil action, shall appoint a close relative of the citizen in question other than the applicant as his representative. Where the close relatives shirk the responsibility, the people's court shall appoint one of them as representative. The people's court shall ask the opinion of the citizen in question if his health permits.


If the people's court, in handling the case, concludes that the application is based on facts, it shall make a judgment ascertaining the citizen's incapacity and restricted capacity for civil action; if it finds that the application it not based on facts, it shall reject the application.


Article 173. Where the people's court, in accordance with an application by the person who has been ascertained to be incapable for civil action or to have only restricted capacity, or by his guardian, confirms that the cause of the said citizen's incapacity or restricted capacity has been removed, it shall make a new judgment and reverse the original judgment.


Section Five: Cases for Ascertaining Ownerless Property


Article 174. An application for ascertaining property without an owner shall be submitted by a citizen, a legal person, or other organization to the basic people's court at the place of the property.


The written application shall clearly state the type and quantity of the property as well as the reasons for applying for ascertaining the ownerless property.


Article 175. The people's court, having examined and checked the application, shall put up a public notice for one year for people to claim the property. Upon expiration of the period, the people's court shall render a judgment ascertaining the property as ownerless and proclaiming it the property of the state or the collective.


Article 176. Where the original owner or a legitimate heir appears after the property has been ascertained as ownerless and claims the property within the time limitation for starting an action as provided in the General Principles of the civil law, the people's court, having examined and the claim and found it true to fact, shall render a new judgment and reverse the original judgment.



Chapter XVI. Procedure of Judicial Supervision


Article 177. Where the president of a people's court at any level finds any definite error in a legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by the said court and deems a retrial necessary, he shall submit the matter to the judicial committee for deliberation and decision.


The Supreme People's Court has the right to conduct a re-trial on its own initiative or instruct a local people's court at any level to start a retrial where a definite error is found in a legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by the said people's court. The same right is enjoyed by a superior people's court in regard to a legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by an inferior people's court containing an error.


Article 178. A litigant who believes that there is a definite error in a legally effective judgment or ruling, may appeal to the trial court or a superior people's court without the judgment or ruling being prevented from execution.


Article 179. The people's court should conduct a trial de novo if the litigant's appeal conforms to the following circumstances


(1) New evidence is found to reverse the original judgment or ruling;


(2) The crucial evidence in the original judgment or ruling is found to be insufficient;


(3) The application of law in the original judgment or ruling is found to be erroneous;


(4) The people's court violates the legal procedure that may have prejudiced the passing of a correct judgment or ruling;


(5) The judge is found to have taken bribes, conducted malpractice out of personal considerations, and misused the law in rendering judgment during the trial of the case.


The people's court shall reject the appeal that does not conform to the aforesaid stipulations.


Article 180. The litigant may lodge an appeal against the results of a mediation that has become legally effective if he provides the evidence to prove that the mediation was reached against his free will or the agreed content in the mediation is illegal. Should this be found to be true after re-examination, the people's court shall conduct a trial de novo.


Article 181. The litigant may not lodge an appeal against a legally effective verdict that terminates matrimony.


Article 182. The litigant shall lodge his appeal within two years after the judgment or the ruling becomes legally effective.


Article 183. Where a trial de novo of a case has been decided according to the procedure of judicial supervision, the execution of the original judgment shall be suspended by a ruling. The ruling shall be signed by the president of the court and sealed by the people's court.


Article 184. The trial de novo of a case, conducted by the people's court according to the procedure of judicial supervision, shall be conducted in accordance with the procedure of first instance where the legally effective judgment or ruling is rendered by the court of first instance. The litigant may appeal against the judgment or ruling. Where the legally effective judgment or ruling is rendered by the court of second instance, the trial de novo shall be conducted according to the procedure of second instance, and the judgment or ruling derived therefrom shall be a legally effective one. The trial de novo of a case brought up and adjudicated by a superior people's court according to the procedure of judicial supervision shall be conducted in accordance with the procedure of second instance, and the judgment or ruling derived therefrom shall be a legally effective one.


The people's court shall form another collegiate bench when hearing a retrial case.


Article 185. The Supreme People's Procuratorate shall lodge a protest against the legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by a people's court at any level, and a superior people's procuratorate against the legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by a subordinate people's court according to the procedure of judicial supervision, when the following circumstances are found


(1) The crucial evidence in the original judgment or ruling is found to be insufficient;


(2) The application of law in the original judgment or ruling is found to be erroneous;


(3) The people's court violates the legal procedure that may have prejudiced the passing of a correct judgment or ruling;


(4) The judge is found to have taken bribes, conducted malpractice out of personal considerations, and misused the law in rendering judgment during the trial of the case.


Where a local people's procuratorate at any level finds that the legally effective judgment or ruling rendered by the people's court of its corresponding level comes under one of the circumstances prescribed in the previous sections, it shall submit the case to a superior people's procuratorate for lodging a protest in accordance with the procedure of judicial supervision.


Article 186. The people's court shall conduct a trial de novo of a case protested by the people's procuratorate.


Article 187. Where the people's procuratorate decides to protest the judgment or ruling rendered by the people's court, it shall prepare a written protest.


Article 188. Where the people's court conducts a trial de novo of a case protested by the people's procuratorate, it shall notify the people's procuratorate to send its personnel to the court session.



Chapter XVII. Supervising and Pressing Procedure


Article 189. A creditor may request the competent people's court at the grassroots level to issue an order of payment to a debtor, ordering the latter to repay the money or negotiable securities owed to the creditor, provided the following conditions are met


(1) There are no other disputes involving debts between the creditor and the debtor; and


(2) The order of payment can be sent and reach the debtor.


The letter of request shall specify the amount of money or negotiable securities to be paid and the facts and proof on which the request is based.


Article 190. The people's court shall, within five days of the receipt of the request, notify the creditor whether it accepts the case or not.


Article 191. Where the people's court finds the creditor's rights and the debtor's liabilities clear and legal, after investigating the facts and proof provided by the creditor, it shall issue an order of payment to the debtor within 15 days of the acceptance of the request from the creditor; where the request is untenable, it shall render a ruling rejecting the request.


The debtor shall pay off the debt within 15 days after the receipt of the order of payment or raise objections in writing to the people's court.


Where the debtor fails to raise objections in writing and refuses to carry out the order of payment, the creditor may request the people's court to execute the order.


Article 192. The people's court shall render a ruling to terminate the supervising and pressing procedure upon receipt of the objection raised by the debtor in writing, and, with it, the order of payment shall automatically cease to be in force and the creditor may bring a suit.



Chapter XVIII. Procedure of Publicizing Pressing Notice


Article 193. A holder of an instrument which is negotiable in accordance with the regulations and which has been stolen, lost or destroyed may request the issuance of a pressing notice from a grassroots people's court at the place where the instrument is to be paid. This chapter shall also be applicable to other matters for which the issuance of pressing notices may be requested in accordance with the provisions of the law.


The applicant for the issuance of a pressing notice shall submit a letter of application to the people's court, specifying the amount, name of the issuer, name of the holder, and other principal elements of the instrument, and the reason and facts on which the application is based.


Article 194. The people's court shall, at the time it decides to accept the application, notify the payee of the instrument to stop payment and, within three days of the decision, issue a public notice urging interested parties to declare their rights. The period for the pressing notice shall be decided by the people's court in the light of the circumstances; however, it shall be at least 60 days.


Article 195. The payee of the instrument shall stop payment upon receipt of the stop-payment notice from the people's court until the termination of the pressing notice procedure.


Transfer of the rights of the instrument shall be null and void during the period in which the pressing notice is in force.


Article 196. An interested party shall declare its right to the people's court during the period in which the pressing notice is in force.


The people's court shall, upon receipt of the declaration from the interested party, render a ruling terminating the public summons procedure and shall notify the applicant and the payee.


The applicant requesting a pressing notice and the party declaring its right may each bring a suit in the people's court.


Article 197. If no declaration of rights is made, the people's court shall, at the request of the applicant, render a judgment invalidating the instrument. The judgment shall be publicly announced, and the payee shall be notified of the judgment. The applicant has the right to ask the payee to make payment on the day the judgment is publicly announced.


Article 198. An interested party who cannot declare its right to the people's court before the judgment is rendered on legitimate reasons may, within a year from the date it becomes aware or should become aware of the judgment, bring a suit in the people's court which rendered the judgment.



Chapter XIX. Procedure of Bankrupt Legal Entity's Debt Payment


Article 199. Where a legal-person enterprise lacks the ability to repay the debt due for repayment because of serious losses, the creditor may apply to the people's court to declare the debtor bankrupt for debt repayment, and the debtor also may apply to the people's court to declare itself bankrupt for debt repayment.


Article 200. After rendering a ruling declaring the start of the bankruptcy and debt repayment procedure, the people's court shall notify the debtor and known creditors and issue a public notice.


Creditors who are in receipt of the notice shall declare their rights to the people's court within 30 days of the receipt of the notice; creditors who are not in receipt of the notice shall declare their rights within three months of the date of the public notice. The failure of the creditors to declare their rights within the prescribed period shall be regarded as a relinquishment of their rights.


Creditors may form a creditors' conference to discuss and approve the disposal of the bankrupt property, the distribution plans and the agreement of settlement.


Article 201. The people's court may set up a liquidation organization composed of personnel from the organs concerned. The liquidation organization is responsible for custody, liquidation, appraisal, disposal and distribution of bankruptcy assets. The liquidation organization may conduct civil activities according to law.


The liquidation organization is responsible to the people's court and reports its work to the latter.


Article 202. If a legal entity has reached a conciliatory agreement with its creditors, the people's court may, after approving the agreement, issue a public notice terminating the bankruptcy debt repayment process. The conciliatory agreement becomes effective on the day the public notice is issued.


Article 203. Banks and other creditors enjoy higher priority in impounding mortgages or other securities from insolvent debtors. If the value of the mortgage or other securities is greater than the debt, the portion in excess of the debt belongs to the assets for bankruptcy debt repayment.


Article 204. The assets for bankruptcy debt repayment shall be used in paying the bankruptcy fees first, and the remainder shall be used in repaying debts in the following order


(1) Wages and labor insurance expenses owed by the bankruptcy enterprise to workers and staff members


(2) Unpaid taxes; and


(3) Other bankruptcy creditors.


If the bankruptcy assets are not enough to repay all the debts in the order mentioned above, they shall be distributed proportionally.


Article 205. The debt repayment by a bankrupt legal entity is under the jurisdiction of the people's court in the locality of the legal entity.


Article 206. The bankruptcy debt repayment process for state-owned enterprises shall be governed by the Enterprise Bankruptcy Law of the People's Republic of China.


The provisions in this chapter are not applicable to any enterprise that is not a legal entity, nor are they applicable to self-employed workers, rural households working under contract, and private partnership.



Part Three Procedure of Execution


Chapter XX. General Provisions


Article 207. A legally effective civil judgment or ruling, and any part involving property in a criminal judgment or ruling, shall be executed by the trial court of first instance. Other legal documents to be executed by the people's court provided for by law shall be executed by the people's court in the place where the person concerned resides or the place where the property concerned is located.


Article 208. Where an outsider objects to the objectives of the execution in the course of the execution, the marshal shall make an examination according to law. The objection shall be rejected if it is groundless; however, if the objection is well-grounded, the president of the court shall approve the suspension of the execution. If a judgment or ruling is found to be wrong, it shall be handled according to the procedure of judicial supervision.


Article 209. The execution shall be performed by the marshal.


In executing a compulsory measure, the marshal shall produce a certificate before the person concerned, and enter the details of execution in a record which shall be signed or sealed by the relevant persons present.


Where necessary, the people's court at the basic level or the intermediate people's court may set up an executing organization. The functional duties of the executing organization shall be stipulated by the Supreme People's Court.


Article 210. Where the person or property concerned is in another place, the execution may be entrusted to a local people's court, which shall, within 15 days of receiving the letter, begin the execution and, after completing it, shall promptly write back the results of the execution to the trustor people's court. If the execution is not completed within 30 days, the entrusted people's court shall write the trustor people's court to keep the latter informed about the progress of the execution.


If the execution is not performed by the entrusted people's court within 15 days of receiving the letter of entrustment, the trustor people's court may request the higher-level people's court of the entrusted people's court to order the latter to perform the execution.


Article 211. Where the litigants of the two parties reconcile and reach agreement of their own accord in the course of the execution, the marshal shall enter the contents of the agreement in a record which shall be signed or sealed by the litigants of both parties.


Where the litigant of one party fails to carry out the agreement reached through reconciliation, the people's court may resume the execution of the original effective legal documents in accordance with the application of the litigant of the opposing party.


Article 212. Where the person concerned offers a guarantee to the people's court, with the agreement of the person applying for the execution, the people's court may decide, in the course of the execution, to temporarily put off the execution and temporarily extend the execution deadline. Where the person concerned still fails to carry out the agreement within the designated time limit, the people's court is entitled to execute the guaranty of the person concerned or the guarantor's property.


Article 213. Where the citizen who is the person concerned dies, his debt shall be repaid with his property. Where the legal person or other organization serving as the person concerned ceases to exist, the person acquiring the rights and undertaking the obligations shall carry out the commitments.


Article 214. Where the judgment, ruling and other legal documents on which basis the execution rests are revoked by the people's court due to errors found in them, the people's court shall make a ruling ordering the person who gains the property to return it and forcibly execute it if he refuses to do so.


Article 215. The stipulations in this book are applicable to the execution of the bill of mediation prepared by the people's court.



Chapter XXI. Request of Execution and Transfer of Execution


Article 216. The litigant must carry out a legally effective civil judgment or ruling. Where one party refuses to carry it out, the opposing litigant may request its execution at the people's court or the judge may transfer the matter to the marshal for execution.


The litigant must carry out the bill of mediation and other legal documents that should be executed by the people's court. Where one party refuses to carry it out, the opposing litigant may request its execution at the people's court.


Article 217. Where a litigant of one party fails to carry out a legally effective verdict rendered by an arbitration organ established according to law, the opposing litigant may ask for its execution at the competent people's court. The people's court accepting the request shall execute the verdict.


The people's court may issue a ruling of not carrying out the execution after its collegiate bench has examined the evidence provided by the person concerned, which proves that the following circumstances are found in the verdict of the arbitration organ


(1) The litigants neither stipulated arbitration provisions in their contract nor reached a written agreement of arbitration afterwards;


(2) The matter being adjudicated falls neither within the limits of the agreement of arbitration nor the limits of the arbitration organ's authority;


(3) The formation of the arbitration tribunal or the arbitrating procedure violate the legal procedure;


(4) The crucial evidence is found to be insufficient;


(5) The application of the law is found to be erroneous;


(6) The arbitrator is found to have taken bribes, conducted malpractice out of personal considerations, and misused the law in rendering a verdict in the course of arbitration.


The people's court shall rule that the verdict is not to be executed should it certify that the execution runs counter to the society's public interests.


Written orders shall be served to the litigants of both parties and the arbitration organ.


Where an arbitration verdict is ruled not to be executed by the people's court, the litigant may go to arbitration again with the written agreement of arbitration reached by both parties, as well as lodge a complaint with the people's court.


Article 218. Where the litigant of one party fails to carry out the credit document to which a notary public has legally granted the effectiveness of forcible execution, the adverse litigant may ask for its execution at the competent people's court, and the people's court shall execute it.


If a definite error is found in the notary document, the people's court shall refuse to execute it and inform the litigants of both parties and the notary public of the ruling.


Article 219. The time limit of request for execution is one year where the litigants of both parties or one party are individuals; the time limit is six months where the two parties are enterprises or other organizations.


The time limit specified in the preceding paragraph shall be computed from the last day of the period of performance prescribed by the legal document; where the legal document specifies the performance to be carried out in different periods, the time limit shall be computed from the last day of each performance period as prescribed.


Article 220. After receiving the written request for execution or transfer of execution, the marshal shall notify the person concerned to carry it out within the designated time limit. It shall be forcibly executed where it is overdue.



Chapter XXII. Measures of Execution


Article 221. Where the person concerned fails to fulfil his obligations set in the legal document in accordance with the notice of execution, the people's court has the authority to inquire banks, credit cooperatives and other organizations in the savings business about the deposits of the person concerned, and has the authority to freeze or transfer his deposits, but the frozen or transferred amount shall not exceed his liability.


The people's court, in deciding to freeze or transfer the deposits, shall make a ruling and issue a notice for assistance in the execution. The banks, credit cooperatives and other savings institutions concerned must comply with the ruling.


Article 222. Where the person concerned fails to fulfil his obligations set in the legal document in accordance with the notice of execution, the people's court has the authority to detain or draw from his income an amount equal to his liability. However, the necessary living expenses for the person concerned and the family he supports should be retained.


The people's court, in deciding to detain or draw from the income, shall make a ruling and issue a notice for assistance in the execution. The banks, credit cooperatives and other savings institutions concerned must comply with the ruling.


Article 223. Where the person concerned fails to fulfil his obligations set in the legal document in accordance with the notice of execution, the people's court has the authority to seal up, distrain, freeze, auction or sell a portion of his property equivalent to his liability. However, the daily necessities for the person concerned and the family he supports should be retained.


Before adopting the measures prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the people's court shall make a ruling.


Article 224. In sealing up or distraining property, the people's court shall notify the person concerned or an adult member of his family to be present; where the party concerned is a legal entity or other organization, the people's court shall notify its legal representative or principal responsible person to be present. If the person concerned refuses to be present, it shall not affect the execution. The unit where the person concerned works and the basic organization at the place of the property shall send people there.


An inventory of the sealed-up or distrained property shall be made by the marshal, and signed or sealed by those present. A copy of the inventory shall be given to the person concerned. If the party concerned is an individual, a copy of the inventory may also be given to an adult member of his family.


Article 225. The marshal may appoint the person concerned to take care of the sealed-up property; the latter shall bear any loss resulting from any errors he makes.


Article 226. Having sealed up or distrained the property, the marshal shall notify the person concerned to carry out within the designated time limit the obligations set in the legal document; where it is overdue, the people's court shall commit the property according to law to a relevant unit for auction or sale. Articles banned by the state from free purchase and sale shall be turned over to a relevant unit for purchase at prices set by the state.


Article 227. Where the person concerned refuses to carry out the obligations set in the legal document and hides his property, the people's court has the powers to issue a search warrant to search the residence of the person concerned or the place where he hides his property.


If the measure in the preceding paragraph is adopted, the search warrant shall be signed by the president of the court.


Article 228. With regard to the belongings or notes of the legal documents specified to be consigned, the marshal shall summon the litigants of both parties to do so in person, or the marshal may pass them over, and the consignee shall sign the receipt.


The relevant unit that holds the said belongings or notes shall pass them over in accordance with the notice of the people's court for assistance in the execution, and the consignee shall sign the receipt.


The people's court shall notify the citizen concerned who holds the said belongings or notes to hand them over. A forcible execution shall be enacted where he refuses to hand them over.


Article 229. As regards forcible eviction from a house or forcible return of land, the president of the people's court shall sign and issue a public notice to order the person concerned to carry it out within a designated time limit. Where the person concerned fails to carry it out within the time limit, the marshal shall execute it forcibly.


Where the person concerned is a citizen, he or an adult member of his family shall be notified to be present when the forcible execution is enacted; where the person concerned is a legal person or other organization, its legal representative or principal responsible person shall be notified to be present. Where he refuses to be present, it shall not affect the execution. Where the person concerned is a citizen, the unit where he works or the basic organization at the place of the house or land shall send people to take part in the forcible execution. The marshal shall enter the details of the execution in a record which shall be signed or sealed by those present.


The people's court shall dispatch men to carry the belongings removed from a house in a forcible execution to a designated place and commit them to the person concerned or an adult member of his family. The person concerned shall bear any loss resulting from his refusal to accept them.


Article 230. Where the execution requires procedure for transfer of certificates of property rights, the people's court may issue a notice requesting the units concerned to assist in the matter; the units concerned shall comply.


Article 231. Where the person concerned refuses to carry out an act designated by the judgment, ruling or legal document as he is instructed to do in a notice, the people's court may execute it forcibly or entrust a relevant unit or others to complete it, and the person concerned shall bear the cost.


Article 232. Where the person concerned fails to make money payments within the period designated by the judgment, ruling or legal document, interest on the debt for the delayed period shall be doubled. Where the person concerned fails to carry out other obligations within the period designated by the judgment, ruling or legal document, he shall pay compensation for the delay.


Article 233. Where the person concerned still does not pay up his debt after the people's court enacts the measures of execution stipulated in Articles 221, 222 and 223 of this law, he shall continue to carry out his obligations. Where the creditor finds out that the person concerned has other property, he may ask the people's court for execution at any time.



Chapter XXIII. Suspension and Termination of Execution


Article 234. The execution shall be suspended by a ruling of the people's court in any of the following circumstances


(1) Where the applicant wishes to postpone the execution;


(2) Where an outsider objects to the execution on well-founded reasons;


(3) Where the litigant of one party dies and it is necessary to wait for his heir to inherit the rights or undertake the obligations;


(4) Where the legal person or other organization serving as litigant of one party cease to exist, and the person to take over its rights and obligations is not yet determined;


(5) Other circumstances where the people's court deems it is necessary to suspend the execution.


The execution shall resume when the circumstances leading to the suspension have disappeared.


Article 235. The execution shall terminate by a ruling of the people's court in any of the following circumstances


(1) Where the applicant revokes his requests;


(2) Where the legal document on whose basis the execution rests has been revoked;


(3) Where the citizen who is the person concerned dies, leaving behind no property for the execution or no one to undertake the obligation; (4) Where the winning party in a case claiming alimony or costs of support or upbringing dies;


(5) Where the citizen who is the person concerned is in a difficult situation, does not have any source of income, loses the ability to work and therefore is unable to pay;


(6) Other circumstances where the people's court deems it is necessary to terminate the execution.


Article 236. A ruling for the suspension or termination of the execution shall become effective immediately upon its being served on the litigants.



Part Four Special Provisions for Procedure of Civil Actions Involving Foreigners


Chapter XXIV. General Principles


Article 237. Provisions of this book apply to civil actions involving foreigners within the territory of the PRC. Where no provisions are specified in this book, other relevant provisions of this law apply.


Article 238. Where the provisions of international treaties which China has concluded or to which China is party are different from those of this law, the former shall apply, except those clauses where China has declared reservation.


Article 239. Civil actions against foreign nationals, foreign organizations or international organizations enjoying diplomatic privileges or immunity shall be handled by the people's court according to the laws of the PRC and the provisions of international treaties which China has concluded or to which China is party.


Article 240. In handling cases involving foreigners, the people's court shall use the spoken and written language commonly used in the PRC. Interpretation may be provided where a litigant so requests, and the litigant shall bear the costs therefrom.


Article 241. Where foreigners, stateless persons, foreign enterprises and organizations want to have legal representatives in taking or responding to actions in the people's court, they must entrust their cases to lawyers of the PRC.


Article 242. Letters of attorney sent from outside the territory of the PRC by foreigners, stateless persons, foreign enterprises or organizations that do not have a residence within the territory of the PRC to Chinese lawyers or other persons must be certified by a notary public of the country where they reside and be authenticated by the Chinese embassy or consulate in that country, or certified in accordance with the procedure provided in the relevant treaties signed between the PRC and the country where they reside, before the letters become effective.



Chapter XXV. Jurisdiction


Article 243. Civil action over contract disputes or disputes over property rights against a defendant who does not reside within the territory of the PRC is under the jurisdiction of the court at the place where the contract is signed, or the place where the contract is carried out, or the place where the object of the litigation is located, or the place where the defendant has property that can be detained, or the place where the infringements of rights have taken place, or the place where the representative organization of the defendant is located, if the contract is signed or carried out within the territory of the PRC, or the object of litigation is within the territory of the PRC, or the defendant has property within the territory of the PRC that can be detained, or the defendant has a representative organization within the territory of the PRC.


Article 244. Litigants of both parties in a case concerning contract disputes or disputes over property rights involving foreigners may agree in writing to place the case under the jurisdiction of the court at the place that has an actual connection with the dispute. Where the jurisdiction of the people's court of the PRC is chosen, provisions of this law concerning differentiated jurisdiction and special jurisdiction shall not be violated.


Article 245. Where the defendant of a civil action involving foreigners does not raise objections over the jurisdiction of the people's court or make a reply, he is considered to have recognized the jurisdiction of the said people's court.


Article 246. Civil actions arising from disputes over the implementation of contracts of Chinese- foreign joint ventures, Chinese-foreign cooperative enterprises and Chinese-foreign joint exploration and exploitation of natural resources are under the jurisdiction of the people's court of the PRC.



Chapter XXVI. Service and Period


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Article 247. The people's court may use the following means to serve the litigant documents to the litigants having no residence within the territory of the PRC.


(1) Served by the means prescribed in a relevant treaty signed between or an international convention signed by the country of residence of the litigant and the PRC;


(2) Through diplomatic channels;


(3) Where the litigants are of Chinese nationality, the documents may be entrusted to the service of the embassy or consulate of the PRC in the country where they reside;


(4) Served to the litigant representative of the litigant;


(5) Served to the representative organization set up by the litigant within the territory of the PRC or its branch or business representative;


(6) Served by mail where the country of residence of the litigant permits; the documents are deemed as served six months from the date of mailing if sufficient circumstances indicate they have been served, and even if no return receipt has been received; and


(7) Where documents cannot be served by the aforesaid means, they shall be served by a public notice; they will be considered served six months from the date of the posting of the public notice.


Article 248. Where the defendant does not have a residence within the territory of the PRC, the people's court shall deliver a copy of the written indictment to the defendant and notify the latter to produce a reply 30 days after receiving the copy. Where the defendant requests an extension of the time limit, the people's court shall rule on the request.


Article 249. Where a litigant who does not have a residence within the territory of the PRC contests the judgment or ruling of the people's court of first instance, he has the right to file an appeal within 30 days of receiving a written judgment or ruling. Having received a copy of the written appeal, the appellee shall produce a reply within 30 days. Where a litigant cannot file an appeal or produce a reply within the prescribed period and requests an extension of the time limit, it shall be up to the people's court to rule on the request.


Article 250. In handling civil proceedings involving foreigners, the people's court is not subject to time limits prescribed in Article 135 and Article 159 of this Law.



Chapter XXVII. Custody of Property


Article 251. A litigant may ask the people's court for custody of property according to Article 92 of this Law.


The party concerned may ask the people's court for custody of property according to Article 93 of this law before taking action.


Article 252. After the people's court grants permission to a pre-action custody of property, the requester shall initiate an action within 30 days. Where he fails to do so, the people's court shall lift the custody of property.


Article 253. Where the other party concerned produces securities after the people's court grants permission for custody of property, the people's court shall lift the custody of property.


Article 254. Where the custody of property is wrongly requested, the requester shall compensate for losses caused to the other party concerned by the custody of property.


Article 255. Where the custody of property decided by the people's court needs supervision, the court shall notify the unit concerned to exercise supervision; expenses for the supervision shall be borne by the other party concerned.


Article 256. The order to lift a custody of property issued by the people's court shall be executed by a marshal.



Chapter XXVIII. Arbitration


Article 257. The parties to a contract may not file a lawsuit with a people's court regarding a dispute arising from foreign economic relations and trade, transportation and maritime affairs, if the contract contains an arbitration clause, or if they later reach a written agreement on arbitration or refer their dispute to a PRC agency in charge of arbitrating disputes involving foreigners or to any other arbitration agency.


Where the contract does not contain an arbitration clause or the parties concerned do not reach a written agreement on arbitration subsequently, a lawsuit may be filed with a people's court.


Article 258. In cases where the parties concerned apply for the preservation of property, a PRC agency in charge of arbitrating disputes involving foreigners shall forward the application to and obtain a ruling from an intermediate people's court in the place where the object of the application resides, or where the property is located.


Article 259. The parties concerned may not file a lawsuit with a people's court after a PRC agency in charge of arbitrating disputes involving foreigners has rendered a ruling. If one party fails to implement the arbitration ruling, the other party may apply for an enforcement of the ruling with an intermediate people's court in the place where the object of the application resides, or where the property is located.


Article 260. After examination and verification, a collegiate bench formed by a people's court shall decide not to enforce a ruling rendered by a PRC agency in charge of arbitrating disputes involving foreigners in any of the following circumstances as proven by the object of the application


(1) Where the contract does not contain an arbitration clause, or where the parties concerned do not conclude a written agreement on arbitration subsequently;


(2) Where the object of the application is not informed of the need to designate an arbritrator or initiate arbitration proceedings, or where the object of the application cannot state his opinions due to reasons for which he cannot be held accountable;


(3) Where the creation of an arbitration court, or the initiation of arbitration proceedings, does not conformto arbitration rules;


(4) Where the matter to be arbitrated falls outside the scope of the arbitration agreement or the jurisdiction of the arbitration agency.


A people's court shall decide not to enforce an arbitration ruling which it deems contrary to social and public interests.


Article 261. Where an arbitration ruling is not enforced pursuant to a people's court's decision, the parties concerned may apply de novo for arbitration pursuant to their written agreement on arbitration, or file a lawsuit with a people's court.



Chapter XXIX. Judicial Assistance


Article 262. In accordance with the international treaties signed or joined by the PRC, or the principle of reciprocity, a people's court and its foreign counterpart may request each other to assist in serving documents, conducting investigations, collecting evidence or initiating other acts of litigation.


A people's court shall not handle a case requested by a foreign court, if the case in question undermines the PRC's sovereignty, security or social and public interests.


Article 263. In requesting or offering judicial assistance, the procedures spelled out in the international treaties signed or joined by the PRC shall be followed; diplomatic channels shall be pursued in cases where there are no treaties.


Foreign diplomatic missions in the PRC may serve documents on, conduct investigations of, or collect evidence from their nationals. However, they shall not violate the PRC's laws or seek compulsory implementation.


Except for circumstances mentioned in the preceding paragraph, no foreign agency or individual may serve documents, conduct investigations, or collect evidence within the boundaries of the PRC without the permission of competent PRC departments.


Article 264. The written request for judicial assistance, delivered to a people's court by a foreign court, and the appendices thereto, shall be accompanied by a translation in the Chinese language or in any other language provided for in an international treaty.


The written request for judicial assistance, delivered to a foreign court by a people's court, and the appendices thereto, shall be accompanied by a translation in the language of the country concerned or in any other language specified in an international treaty.


Article 265. The people's court shall act in accordance with the procedures provided for in the laws of the PRC in providing judicial assistance. Special methods may be followed at the request of a foreign court, provided that such methods are not in contravention of the laws of the PRC.


Article 266. Where the applicant requests forcible execution of a legally effective judgment or ruling made by the people's court of the PRC and the party concerned or his property is not within the territory of the PRC, the applicant may directly request a competent foreign court to acknowledge its validity and execute it, or the people's court may request a foreign court to acknowledge its validity and execute it according to the international treaties which China has concluded, or to which China is a party, or in accordance with the principle of mutual reciprocity.


Where the applicant requests forcible execution of a legally effective verdict rendered by an arbitration organization in charge of foreign affairs and the party concerned or his property is not within the territory of the PRC, the applicant shall directly request a competent foreign court to acknowledge its validity and execute the verdict.


Article 267. Where a legally effective judgment or ruling made by a foreign court requires the people's court in the PRC to acknowledge its validity and execute it, the applicant may directly request a competent intermediate people's court to do so, or the foreign court may request the people's court to do so, according to the international treaties which China has concluded or to which China is a party or in accordance with the principle of mutual reciprocity.


Article 268. The people's court shall examine, in accordance with the international treaties which China has concluded or to which China is a party or according to the principle of mutual reciprocity, the application or request for acknowledgment of the validity and execution of a legally effective judgment or ruling which a foreign court has rendered. Where it is found to be not in contravention of the basic principles of the laws of the PRC, or China's sovereignty, or its national and social interests, the people's court shall acknowledge its validity by a ruling and, where necessary, issues an order of execution to implement it according to the procedure specified by this law. Where it is found to be in contravention of the basic principles of the laws of the PRC, or China's sovereignty, or its national and social interests, the people's court shall not acknowledge its validity or implement it.


Article 269. Where a verdict rendered by a foreign arbitration organization requires the people's court in the PRC to acknowledge its validity and execute it, the applicant shall directly apply to the intermediate people's court in the place of the residence of the party concerned or of his property to do so, and the people's court shall act according to the international treaties which China has concluded or to which China is a party or in accordance with the principle of mutual reciprocity.


Article 270. This law will go into effect on the day of its promulgation. The ''Law of Civil Procedure of the People's Republic of China (for Trial Implementation) '' shall cease to be in force on the same day.



(The English translations are for reference only.)



中华人民共和国民事诉讼法

(1991年4月9日第七届人大四次会议通过并颁布)

第一编 总 则


第一章 任务、适用范围和基本原则

第一条 中华人民共和国民事诉讼法以宪法为根据,结合我国民事审判工作的经验和实际情况制定。

第二条 中华人民共和国民事诉讼法的任务,是保护当事人行使诉讼权利,保证人民法院查明事实,分清是非,正确适用法律,及时审理民事案件,确认民事权利义务关系,制裁民事违法行为,保护当事人的合法权益,教育公民自觉遵守法律,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业顺利进行。

第三条 人民法院受理公民之间、法人之间、其他组织之间以及他们相互之间因财产关系和人身关系提起的民事诉讼,适用本法的规定。

第四条 凡在中华人民共和国领域内进行民事诉讼,必须遵守本法。

第五条 外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,同中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织有同等的诉讼权利义务。外国法院对中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织的民事诉讼权利加以限制的,中华人民共和国人民法院对该国公民、企业和组织的民事诉讼权利,实行对等原则。

第六条 民事案件的审判权由人民法院行使。人民法院依照法律规定对民事案件独立进行审判,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。

第七条 人民法院审理民事案件,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。

第八条 民事诉讼当事人有平等的诉讼权利。人民法院审理民事案件,应当保障和便利当事人行使诉讼权利,对当事人在适用法律上一律平等。

第九条 人民法院审理民事案件,应当根据自愿和合法的原则进行调解;调解不成的,应当及时判决。

第十条 人民法院审理民事案件,依照法律规定实行合议、回避、公开审判和两审终审制度。

第十一条 各民族公民都有用本民族语言、文字进行民事诉讼的权利。在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,人民法院应当用当地民族通用的语言、文字进行审理和发布法律文书。人民法院应当对不通晓当地民族通用的语言、文字的诉讼参与人提供翻译。

第十二条 人民法院审理民事案件时,当事人有权进行辩论。

第十三条 当事人有权在法律规定的范围内处分自己的民事权利和诉讼权利。

第十四条 人民检察院有权对民事审判活动实行法律监督。

第十五条 机关、社会团体、企业事业单位对损害国家、集体或者个人民事权益的行为,可以支持受损害的单位或者个人向人民法院起诉。

第十六条 人民调解委员会是在基层人民政府和基层人民法院指导下,调解民间纠纷的群众性组织。人民调解委员会依照法律规定,根据自愿原则进行调解。当事人对调解达成的协议应当履行;不愿调解、调解不成或者反悔的,可以向人民法院起诉。人民调解委员会调解民间纠纷,如有违背法律的,人民法院应当予以纠正。

第十七条 民族自治地方的人民代表大会根据宪法和本法的原则,结合当地民族的具体情况,可以制定变通或者补充的规定。自治区的规定,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准。自治州、自治县的规定,报省或者自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。


第二章 管 辖

第一节 级别管辖

第十八条 基层人民法院管辖第一审民事案件,但本法另有规定的除外。

第十九条 中级人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件:

(一)重大涉外案件;

(二)在本辖区有重大影响的案件;

(三)最高人民法院确定由中级人民法院管辖的案件。

第二十条 高级人民法院管辖在本辖区有重大影响的第一审民事案件。

第二十一条 最高人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件:

(一)在全国有重大影响的案件;

(二)认为应当由本院审理的案件。

第二节 地域管辖

第二十二条 对公民提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖;被告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由经常居住地人民法院管辖。对法人或者其他组织提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。同一诉讼的几个被告住所地、经常居住地在两个以上人民法院辖区的,各该人民法院都有管辖权。

第二十三条 下列民事诉讼,由原告住所地人民法院管辖;原告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由原告经常居住地人民法院管辖:

(一)对不在中华人民共和国领域内居住的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼;

(二)对下落不明或者宣告失踪的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼;

(三)对被劳动教养的人提起的诉讼;

(四)对被监禁的人提起的诉讼。

第二十四条 因合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者合同履行地人民法院管

辖。

第二十五条 合同的双方当事人可以在书面合同中协议选择被告住所地、合同履行地、合同签订地、原告住所地、标的物所在地人民法院管辖,但不得违反本法对级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。

第二十六条 因保险合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者保险标的物所在地人民法院管辖。

第二十七条 因票据纠纷提起的诉讼,由票据支付地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第二十八条 因铁路、公路、水上、航空运输和联合运输合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由运输始发地、目的地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第二十九条 因侵权行为提起的诉讼,由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第三十条 因铁路、公路、水上和航空事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由事故发生地或者车辆、船舶最先到达地、航空器最先降落地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第三十一条 因船舶碰撞或者其他海事损害事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由碰撞发生地、碰撞船舶最先到达地、加害船舶被扣留地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。

第三十二条 因海难救助费用提起的诉讼,由救助地或者被救助船舶最先到达地人民法院管辖。

第三十三条 因共同海损提起的诉讼,由船舶最先到达地、共同海损理算地或者航程终止地的人民法院管辖。

第三十四条 下列案件,由本条规定的人民法院专属管辖:

(一)因不动产纠纷提起的诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖;

(二)因港口作业中发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由港口所在地人民法院管辖;

(三)因继承遗产纠纷提起的诉讼,由被继承人死亡时住所地或者主要遗产所在地人民法院管辖。

第三十五条 两个以上人民法院都有管辖权的诉讼,原告可以向其中一个人民法院起诉;原告向两个以上有管辖权的人民法院起诉的,由最先立案的人民法院管辖。

第三节 移送管辖和指定管辖

第三十六条 人民法院发现受理的案件不属于本院管辖的,应当移送有管辖权的人民法院,受移送的人民法院应当受理。受移送的人民法院认为受移送的案件依照定不属于本院管辖的,应当报请上级人民法院指定管辖,不得再自行移送。

第三十七条 有管辖权的人民法院由于特殊原因,不能行使管辖权的,由上级人民法院指定管辖人民法院之间因管辖权发生争议,由争议双方协商解决;协商解决不了的,报请它们的共同上级人民法院指定管辖。

第三十八条 人民法院受理案件后,当事人对管辖权有异议的,应当在提交答辩状期间提出。人民法院对当事人提出的异议,应当审查。异议成立的,裁定将案件移送有管辖权的人民法院;异议不成立的,裁定驳回。

第三十九条 上级人民法院有权审理下级人民法院管辖的第一审民事案件,也可以把本院管辖的第一审民事案件交下级人民法院审理。下级人民法院对它所管辖的第一审民事案件,认为需要由上级人民法院审理的,可以报请上级人民法院审理。


第三章 审判组织

第四十条 人民法院审理第一审民事案件,由审判员、陪审员共同组成合议庭或者由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。适用简易程序审理的民事案件,由审判员一人独任审理。陪审员在执行陪审职务时,与审判员有同等的权利义务。

第四十一条 人民法院审理第二审民事案件,由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。发回重审的案件,原审人民法院应当按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭。审理再审案件,原来是第一审的,按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭;原来是第二审的或者是上级人民法院提审的,按照第二审程序另行组成合议庭。

第四十二条 合议庭的审判长由院长或者庭长指定审判员一人担任;院长或者庭长参加审判的,由院长或者庭长担任。

第四十三条 合议庭评议案件,实行少数服从多数的原则。评议应当制作笔录,由合议庭成员签名。评议中的不同意见,必须如实记入笔录。

第四十四条 审判人员应当依法秉公办案。审判人员不得接受当事人及其诉讼代理人请客送礼。

审判人员有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的,应当追究法律责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。


第四章 回 避

第四十五条 审判人员有下列情形之一的,必须回避,当事人有权用口头或者书面方式申请他们回避:

(一)是本案当事人或者当事人、诉讼代理人的近亲属;

(二)与本案有利害关系;

(三)与本案当事人有其他关系,可能影响对案件公正审理的。前款规定,适用于书记员、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人。

第四十六条 当事人提出回避申请,应当说明理由,在案件开始审理时提出;回避事由在案件开始审理后知道的,也可以在法庭辩论终结前提出。

被申请回避的人员在人民法院作出是否回避的决定前,应当暂停参与本案的工作,但案件需要采取紧急措施的除外。

第四十七条 院长担任审判长时的回避,由审判委员会决定;审判人员的回避,由院长决定;其他人员的回避,由审判长决定。

第四十八条 人民法院对当事人提出的回避申请,应当在申请提出的三日内,以口头或者书面形式作出决定。申请人对决定不服的,可以在接到决定时申请复议一次。

复议期间,被申请回避的人员,不停止参与本案的工作。人民法院对复议申请,应当在三日内作出复议决定,并通知复议申请人。


第五章 诉讼参加人

第一节 当事人

第四十九条 公民、法人和其他组织可以作为民事诉讼的当事人。法人由其法定代表人进行诉讼。其他组织由其主要负责人进行诉讼。

第五十条 当事人有权委托代理人,提出回避申请,收集、提供证据,进行辩论,求调解,提起上诉,申请执行。

当事人可以查阅本案有关材料,并可以复制本案有关材料和法律文书。查阅、复制本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。

当事人必须依法行使诉讼权利,遵守诉讼秩序,履行发生法律效力的判决书、裁定书和调解书。

第五十一条 双方当事人可以自行和解。

第五十二条 原告可以放弃或者变更诉讼请求。被告可以承认或者反驳诉讼请求,有权提起反诉。

第五十三条 当事人一方或者双方为二人以上,其诉讼标的是共同的,或者诉讼标的是同一种类、人民法院认为可以合并审理并经当事人同意的,为共同诉讼。共同诉讼的一方当事人对诉讼标的有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为经其他共同诉讼人承认,对其他共同诉讼人发生效力;对诉讼标的没有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为对其他共同诉讼人不发生效力。

第五十四条 当事人一方人数众多的共同诉讼,可以由当事人推选代表人进行诉讼。代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。

第五十五条 诉讼标的是同一种类、当事人一方人数众多在起诉时人数尚未确定的,人民法院可以发出公告,说明案件情况和诉讼请求,通知权利人在一定期间向人民法院登记。向人民法院登记的权利人可以推选代表人进行诉讼;推选不出代表人的,人民法院可以与参加登记的权利人商定代表人。代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。人民法院作出的判决、裁定,对参加登记的全体权利人发生效力。未参加登记的权利人在诉讼时效期间提起诉讼的,适用该判决、裁定。

第五十六条 对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人认为有独立请求权的,有权提起诉讼。对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人虽然没有独立请求权,但案件处理结果同他有法律上的利害关系的,可以申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知他参加诉讼。人民法院判决承担民事责任的第三人,有当事人的诉讼权利义务。

第二节 诉讼代理人

第五十七条 无诉讼行为能力人由他的监护人作为法定代理人代为诉讼。法定代理人之间互相推诿代理责任的,由人民法院指定其中一人代为诉讼。

第五十八条 当事人、法定代理人可以委托一至二人作为诉讼代理人。律师、当事人的近亲属、有关的社会团体或者所在单位推荐的人、经人民法院许可的其他公民,都可以被委托为诉讼代理人。

第五十九条 委托他人代为诉讼,必须向人民法院提交由委托人签名或者盖章的授权委托书。授权委托书必须记明委托事项和权限。诉讼代理人代为承认、放弃、变更诉讼请求,进行和解,提起反诉或者上诉,必须有委托人的特别授权。侨居在国外的中华人民共和国公民从国外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,必须经中华人民共和国驻该国的使领馆证明;没有使领馆的,由与中华人民共和国有外交关系的第三国驻该国的使领馆证明,再转由中华人民共和国驻该第三国使领馆证明,或者由当地的爱国华侨团体证明。

第六十条 诉讼代理人的权限如果变更或者解除,当事人应当书面告知人民法院,并由人民法院通知对方当事人。

第六十一条 代理诉讼的律师和其他诉讼代理人有权调查收集证据,可以查阅本案有关材料。查阅本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。

第六十二条 离婚案件有诉讼代理人的,本人除不能表达意志的以外,仍应出庭;确因特殊情况无法出庭的,必须向人民法院提交书面意见。


第六章 证 据

第六十三条 证据有下列几种:

(一)书证;

(二)物证;

(三)视听资料;

(四)证人证言;

(五)当事人的陈述;

(六)鉴定结论;

(七)勘验笔录。

以上证据必须查证属实,才能作为认定事实的根据。

第六十四条 当事人对自己提出的主张,有责任提供证据。

当事人及其诉讼代理人因客观原因不能自行收集的证据,或者人民法院认为审理案件需要的证据,人民法院应当调查收集。人民法院应当按照法定程序,全面地、客观地审查核实证据。

第六十五条 人民法院有权向有关单位和个人调查取证,有关单位和个人不得拒绝。

人民法院对有关单位和个人提出的证明文书,应当辨别真伪,审查确定其效力。

第六十六条 证据应当在法庭上出示,并由当事人互相质证。对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的证据应当保密,需要在法庭出示的,不得在公开开庭时出示。

第六十七条 经过法定程序公证证明的法律行为、法律事实和文书,人民法院应当作为认定事实的根据。但有相反证据足以推翻公证证明的除外。

第六十八条 书证应当提交原件。物证应当提交原物。提交原件或者原物确有困难的,可以提交复制品、照片、副本、节录本。提交外文书证,必须附有中文译本。

第六十九条 人民法院对视听资料,应当辨别真伪,并结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。

第七十条 凡是知道案件情况的单位和个人,都有义务出庭作证。有关单位的负责人应当支持证人作证。证人确有困难不能出庭的,经人民法院许可,可以提交书面证言。不能正确表达意志的人,不能作证。

第七十一条 人民法院对当事人的陈述,应当结合本案的其他证据,审查确定能否作为认定事实的根据。当事人拒绝陈述的,不影响人民法院根据证据认定案件事实。

第七十二条 人民法院对专门性问题认为需要鉴定的,应当交由法定鉴定部门定;没有法定鉴定部门的,由人民法院指定的鉴定部门鉴定。鉴定部门及其指定的鉴定人有权了解进行鉴定所需要的案件材料,必要时可以询问当事人、证人。鉴定部门和鉴定人应当提出书面鉴定结论,在鉴定书上签名或者盖章。鉴定人鉴定的,应当由鉴定人所在单位加盖印章,证明鉴定人身份。

第七十三条 勘验物证或者现场,勘验人必须出示人民法院的证件,并邀请当地基层组织或者当事人所在单位派人参加。当事人或者当事人的成年家属应当到场,拒不到场的,不影响勘验的进行。有关单位和个人根据人民法院的通知,有义务保护现场,协助勘验工作。勘验人应当将勘验情况和结果制作笔录,由勘验人、当事人和被邀参加人签名或者盖章。

第七十四条 在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,诉讼参加人可以向人民法院申请保全证据,人民法院也可以主动采取保全措施。


第七章 期间、送达

第一节 期 间

第七十五条 期间包括法定期间和人民法院指定的期间。

期间以时、日、月、年计算。期间开始的时和日,不计算在期间内。

期间届满的最后一日是节假日的,以节假日后的第一日为期间届满的日期。

期间不包括在途时间,诉讼文书在期满前交邮的,不算过期。

第七十六条 当事人因不可抗拒的事由或者其他正当理由耽误期限的,在障碍消除后的十日内,可以申请顺延期限,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第二节 送 达

第七十七条 送达诉讼文书必须有送达回证,由受送达人在送达回证上记明收到日期,签名或者盖章。受送达人在送达回证上的签收日期为送达日期。

第七十八条 送达诉讼文书,应当直接送交受送达人。受送达人是公民的,本人不在交他的同住成年家属签收;受送达人是法人或者其他组织的,应当由法人的法定

代表人、其他组织的主要负责人或者该法人、组织负责收件的人签收;受送达人有诉讼代理人的,可以送交其代理人签收;受送达人已向人民法院指定代收人的,送交代收人签收。受送达人的同住成年家属,法人或者其他组织的负责收件的人,诉讼代理人或者代收人在送达回证上签收的日期为送达日期。

第七十九条 受送达人或者他的同住成年家属拒绝接收诉讼文书的,送达人应当邀请有关基层组织或者所在单位的代表到场,说明情况,在送达回证上记明拒收事由和日期,由送达人、见证人签名或者盖章,把诉讼文书留在受送达人的住所,即视为送达。

第八十条 直接送达诉讼文书有困难的,可以委托其他人民法院代为送达,或者邮寄送达。邮寄送达的,以回执上注明的收件日期为送达日期。

第八十一条 受送达人是军人的,通过其所在部队团以上单位的政治机关转交。

第八十二条 受送达人是被监禁的,通过其所在监所或者劳动改造单位转交。受送达人是被劳动教养的,通过其所在劳动教养单位转交。

第八十三条 代为转交的机关、单位收到诉讼文书后,必须立即交受送达人签收以在送达回证上的签收日期,为送达日期。

第八十四条 受送达人下落不明,或者用本节规定的其他方式无法送达的,公告送达。自发出公告之日起,经过六十日,即视为送达。公告送达,应当在案卷中记明原因和经过。


第八章 调 解

第八十五条 人民法院审理民事案件,根据当事人自愿的原则,在事实清楚的基础上,分清是非,进行调解。

第八十六条 人民法院进行调解,可以由审判员一人主持,也可以由合议庭主持,并尽可能就地进行。人民法院进行调解,可以用简便方式通知当事人、证人到庭。

第八十七条 人民法院进行调解,可以邀请有关单位和个人协助。被邀请的单位和个人,应当协助人民法院进行调解。

第八十八条 调解达成协议,必须双方自愿,不得强迫。调解协议的内容不得违反法律规定。

第八十九条 调解达成协议,人民法院应当制作调解书。调解书应当写明诉讼请求、案件的事实和调解结果。调解书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章,送达双方当事人。调解书经双方当事人签收后,即具有法律效力。

第九十条 下列案件调解达成协议,人民法院可以不制作调解书:

(一)调解和好的离婚案件;

(二)调解维持收养关系的案件;

(三)能够即时履行的案件;

(四)其他不需要制作调解书的案件。

对不需要制作调解书的协议,应当记入笔录,由双方当事人、审判人员、书记员签名或者盖章后,即具有法律效力。

第九十一条 调解未达成协议或者调解书送达前一方反悔的,人民法院应当及时判决。


第九章 财产保全和先予执行

第九十二条 人民法院对于可能因当事人一方的行为或者其他原因,使判决不能执行或者难以执行的案件,可以根据对方当事人的申请,作出财产保全的裁定;当事人没有提出申请的,人民法院在必要时也可以裁定采取财产保全措施。人民法院采取财产保全措施,可以责令申请人提供担保;申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。人民法院接受申请后,对情况紧急的,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取财产保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。

第九十三条 利害关系人因情况紧急,不立即申请财产保全将会使其合法权益受到难以弥补的损害的,可以在起诉前向人民法院申请采取财产保全措施。申请人应当提供担保,不提供担保的,驳回申请。人民法院接受申请后,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取财产保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。申请人在人民法院采取保全措施后十五日内不起诉的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第九十四条 财产保全限于请求的范围,或者与本案有关的财物。财产保全采取查封、扣押、冻结或者法律规定的其他方法。人民法院冻结财产后,应当立即通知被冻结财产的人。财产已被查封、冻结的,不得重复查封、冻结。

第九十五条 被申请人提供担保的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第九十六条 申请有错误的,申请人应当赔偿被申请人因财产保全所遭受的损失。

第九十七条 人民法院对下列案件,根据当事人的申请,可以裁定先予执行:

(一)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费、抚恤金、医疗费用的;

(二)追索劳动报酬的;

(三)因情况紧急需要先予执行的。

第九十八条 人民法院裁定先予执行的,应当符合下列条件:

(一)当事人之间权利义务关系明确,不先予执行将严重影响申请人的生活或者生

产经营的;

(二)被申请人有履行能力。

人民法院可以责令申请人提供担保,申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。申请人败诉的,应当赔偿被申请人因先予执行遭受的财产损失。

第九十九条 当事人对财产保全或者先予执行的裁定不服的,可以申请复议一次。复议期间不停止裁定的执行。


第十章 对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施

第一百条 人民法院对必须到庭的被告,经两次传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭

的,可以拘传。

第一百零一条 诉讼参与人和其他人应当遵守法庭规则。

人民法院对违反法庭规则的人,可以予以训诫,责令退出法庭或者予以罚款、拘留。人民法院对哄闹、冲击法庭,侮辱、诽谤、威胁、殴打审判人员,严重扰乱法庭秩序的人,依法追究刑事责任;情节较轻的,予以罚款、拘留。

第一百零二条 诉讼参与人或者其他人有下列行为之一的,人民法院可以根据情

节轻重予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:

(一)伪造、毁灭重要证据,妨碍人民法院审理案件的;

(二)以暴力、威胁、贿买方法阻止证人作证或者指使、贿买、胁迫他人作伪证

的;

(三)隐藏、转移、变卖、毁损已被查封、扣押的财产,或者已被清点并责令其

保管的财产,转移已被冻结的财产的;

(四)对司法工作人员、诉讼参加人、证人、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人、协助

执行的人,进行侮辱、诽谤、诬陷、殴打或者打击报复的;

(五)以暴力、威胁或者其他方法阻碍司法工作人员执行职务的;

(六)拒不履行人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定的。

人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第一百零三条 有义务协助调查、执行的单位有下列行为之一的,人民法院除责令其履行协助义务外,并可以予以罚款:

(一)有关单位拒绝或者妨碍人民法院调查取证的;

(二)银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书

后,拒不协助查询、冻结或者划拨存款的;

(三)有关单位接到人民法院协助执行通知书后,拒不协助扣留被执行人的收入、

办理有关财产权证照转移手续、转交有关票证、证照或者其他财产的;

(四)其他拒绝协助执行的。

人民法院对有前款规定的行为之一的单位,可以对其主要负责人或者直接责任人员予以罚款;还可以向监察机关或者有关机关提出予以纪律处分的司法建议。

第一百零四条 对个人的罚款金额,为人民币一千元以下。对单位的罚款金额,为人民币一千元以上三万元以下。拘留的期限,为十五日以下。被拘留的人,由人民法院交公安机关看管。在拘留期间,被拘留人承认并改正错误的,人民法院可以决定提前解除拘留。

第一百零五条 拘传、罚款、拘留必须经院长批准。拘传应当发拘传票。罚款、拘留应当用决定书。对决定不服的,可以向上一级人民法院申请复议一次。议期间不停止执行。

第一百零六条 采取对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施必须由人民法院决定。任何单位和个人采取非法拘禁他人或者非法私自扣押他人财产追索债务的,应当依法追究刑事责任,或者予以拘留、罚款。

第十一章 诉讼费用

第一百零七条 当事人进行民事诉讼,应当按照规定交纳案件受理费。财产案件除交纳案件受理费外,并按照规定交纳其他诉讼费用。

当事人交纳诉讼费用确有困难的,可以按照规定向人民法院申请缓交、减交或者免交。收取诉讼费用的办法另行制定。



第二编 审判程序

第十二章 第一审普通程序

第一节 起诉和受理

第一百零八条 起诉必须符合下列条件:

(一)原告是与本案有直接利害关系的公民、法人和其他组织;

(二)有明确的被告;

(三)有具体的诉讼请求和事实、理由;

(四)属于人民法院受理民事诉讼的范围和受诉人民法院管辖。

第一百零九条 起诉应当向人民法院递交起诉状,并按照被告人数提出副本。书写起诉状确有困难的,可以口头起诉,由人民法院记入笔录,并告知对方当事人。

第一百一十条 起诉状应当记明下列事项:

(一)当事人的姓名、性别、年龄、民族、职业、工作单位和住所,法人或者其他

组织的名称、住所和法定代表人或者主要负责人的姓名、职务;

(二)诉讼请求和所根据的事实与理由;

(三)证据和证据来源,证人姓名和住所。

第一百一十一条 人民法院对符合本法第一百零八条的起诉,必须受理;对下列起诉,分别情形,予以处理:

(一)依照行政诉讼法的规定,属于行政诉讼受案范围的,告知原告提起行政诉讼;

(二)依照法律规定,双方当事人对合同纠纷自愿达成书面仲裁协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁、不得向人民法院起诉的,告知原告向仲裁机构申请仲裁;

(三)依照法律规定,应当由其他机关处理的争议,告知原告向有关机关申请解决;

(四)对不属于本院管辖的案件,告知原告向有管辖权的人民法院起诉;

(五)对判决、裁定已经发生法律效力的案件,当事人又起诉的,告知原告按照申诉处理,但人民法院准许撤诉的裁定除外;

(六)依照法律规定,在一定期限内不得起诉的案件,在不得起诉的期限内起诉的,不予受理;

(七)判决不准离婚和调解和好的离婚案件,判决、调解维持收养关系的案件没有新情况、新理由,原告在六个月内又起诉的,不予受理。

第一百一十二条 人民法院收到起诉状或者口头起诉,经审查,认为符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内立案,并通知当事人;认为不符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内裁定不予受理;原告对裁定不服的,可以提起上诉。

第二节 审理前的准备

第一百一十三条 人民法院应当在立案之日起五日内将起诉状副本发送被告,被告在收到之日起十五日内提出答辩状。被告提出答辩状的,人民法院应当在收到之日起五日内将答辩状副本发送原告。被告不提出答辩状的,不影响人民法院审理。

第一百一十四条 人民法院对决定受理的案件,应当在受理案件通知书和应诉通知书中向当事人告知有关的诉讼权利义务,或者口头告知。

第一百一十五条 合议庭组成人员确定后,应当在三内日告知当事人。

第一百一十六条 审判人员必须认真审核诉讼材料,调查收集必要的证据。

第一百一十七条 人民法院派出人员进行调查时,应当向被调查人出示证件。调查笔录经被调查人校阅后,由被调查人、调查人签名或者盖章。

第一百一十八条 人民法院在必要时可以委托外地人民法院调查。委托调查,必须提出明确的项目和要求。受委托人民法院可以主动补充调查。受委托人民法院收到委托书后,应当在三十日内完成调查。因故不能完成的,应当在上述期限内函告委托人民法院。

第一百一十九条 必须共同进行诉讼的当事人没有参加诉讼的,人民法院应当通知其参加诉讼。

第三节 开庭审理

第一百二十条 人民法院审理民事案件,除涉及国家秘密、个人隐私或者法律另有规定的以外,应当公开进行。离婚案件,涉及商业秘密的案件,当事人申请不公开审理的,可以不公开审理。

第一百二十一条 人民法院审理民事案件,根据需要进行巡回审理,就地办案。

第一百二十二条 人民法院审理民事案件,应当在开庭三日前通知当事人和其他诉讼参与人。公开审理的,应当公告当事人姓名、案由和开庭的时间、地点。

第一百二十三条 开庭审理前,书记员应当查明当事人和其他诉讼参与人是否到庭,宣布法庭纪律。开庭审理时,由审判长核对当事人,宣布案由,宣布审判人员、书记员名单,告知当事人有关的诉讼权利义务,询问当事人是否提出回避申请。

第一百二十四条 法庭调查按照下列顺序进行:

(一)当事人陈述;

(二)告知证人的权利义务,证人作证,宣读未到庭的证人证言;

(三)出示书证、物证和视听资料;

(四)宣读鉴定结论;

(五)宣读勘验笔录。

第一百二十五条 当事人在法庭上可以提出新的证据。当事人经法庭许可,可以向证人、鉴定人、勘验人发问。当事人要求重新进行调查、鉴定或者勘验的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第一百二十六条 原告增加诉讼请求,被告提出反诉,第三人提出与本案有关的诉讼请求,可以合并审理。

第一百二十七条 法庭辩论按照下列顺序进行:

(一)原告及其诉讼代理人发言;

(二)被告及其诉讼代理人答辩;

(三)第三人及其诉讼代理人发言或者答辩;

(四)互相辩论。

法庭辩论终结,由审判长按照原告、被告、第三人的先后顺序征询各方最后意见。

第一百二十八条 法庭辩论终结,应当依法作出判决。判决前能够调解的,还可以进行调解,调解不成的,应当及时判决。

第一百二十九条 原告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,或者未经法庭许可中途退庭的,可以按撤诉处理;被告反诉的,可以缺席判决。

第一百三十条 被告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,或者未经法庭许可中途退庭的,可以缺席判决。

第一百三十一条 宣判前,原告申请撤诉的,是否准许,由人民法院裁定。人民法院裁定不准许撤诉的,原告经传票传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,可以缺席判决。

第一百三十二条 有下列情形之一的,可以延期开庭审理:

(一)必须到庭的当事人和其他诉讼参与人有正当理由没有到庭的;

(二)当事人临时提出回避申请的;

(三)需要通知新的证人到庭,调取新的证据,重新鉴定、勘验,或者需要补充调查的;

(四)其他应当延期的情形。

第一百三十三条 书记员应当将法庭审理的全部活动记入笔录,由审判人员和书记员签名。法庭笔录应当当庭宣读,也可以告知当事人和其他诉讼参与人当庭或者在五日阅读。当事人和其他诉讼参与人认为对自己的陈述记录有遗漏或者差错的,有权申请补正。如果不予补正,应当将申请记录在案。法庭笔录由当事人和其他诉讼参与人签名或者盖章。拒绝签名盖章的,记明情况附卷。

第一百三十四条 人民法院对公开审理或者不公开审理的案件,一律公开宣告判决。

当庭宣判的,应当在十日内发送判决书;定期宣判的,宣判后立即发给判决书。

宣告判决时,必须告知当事人上诉权利、上诉期限和上诉的法院。

宣告离婚判决,必须告知当事人在判决发生法律效力前不得另行结婚。

第一百三十五条 人民法院适用普通程序审理的案件,应当在立案之日起六个月内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准,可以延长六个月;还需要延长的,报请上级人民法院批准。

第四节 诉讼中止和终结

第一百三十六条 有下列情形之一的,中止诉讼:

(一)一方当事人死亡,需要等待继承人表明是否参加诉讼的;

(二)一方当事人丧失诉讼行为能力,尚未确定法定代理人的;

(三)作为一方当事人的法人或者其他组织终止,尚未确定权利义务承受人的;

(四)一方当事人因不可抗拒的事由,不能参加诉讼的;

(五)本案必须以另一案的审理结果为依据,而另一案尚未审结的;

(六)其他应当中止诉讼的情形。

中止诉讼的原因消除后,恢复诉讼。

第一百三十七条 有下列情形之一的,终结诉讼:

(一)原告死亡,没有继承人,或者继承人放弃诉讼权利的;

(二)被告死亡,没有遗产,也没有应当承担义务的人的;

(三)离婚案件一方当事人死亡的;

(四)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费以及解除收养关系案件的一方当事人死亡的。

第五节 判决和裁定

第一百三十八条 判决书应当写明:

(一)案由、诉讼请求、争议的事实和理由;

(二)判决认定的事实、理由和适用的法律依据;

(三)判决结果和诉讼费用的负担;

(四)上诉期间和上诉的法院。

判决书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。

第一百三十九条 人民法院审理案件,其中一部分事实已经清楚,可以就该部分先行判决。

第一百四十条 裁定适用于下列范围:

(一)不予受理;

(二)对管辖权有异议的;

(三)驳回起诉;

(四)财产保全和先予执行;

(五)准许或者不准许撤诉;

(六)中止或者终结诉讼;

(七)补正判决书中的笔误;

(八)中止或者终结执行;

(九)不予执行仲裁裁决;

(十)不予执行公证机关赋予强制执行效力的债权文书;

(十一)其他需要裁定解决的事项。

对前款第(一)、(二)、(三)项裁定,可以上诉。裁定书由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。口头裁定的,记入笔录。

第一百四十一条 最高人民法院的判决、裁定,以及依法不准上诉或者超过上诉

期没有上诉的判决、裁定,是发生法律效力的判决、裁定。


第十三章 简易程序

第一百四十二条 基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理事实清楚、权利义务关系明确、争议不大的简单的民事案件,适用本章规定。

第一百四十三条 对简单的民事案件,原告可以口头起诉。

当事人双方可以同时到基层人民法院或者它派出的法庭,请求解决纠纷。基层人民法院或者它派出的法庭可以当即审理,也可以另定日期审理。

第一百四十四条 基层人民法院和它派出的法庭审理简单的民事案件,可以用简便方式随时传唤当事人、证人。

第一百四十五条 简单的民事案件由审判员一人独任审理,并不受本法第一百二十二条、第一百二十四条、第一百二十七条规定的限制。

第一百四十六条 人民法院适用简易程序审理案件,应当在立案之日起三个月内审结。


第十四章 第二审程序

第一百四十七条 当事人不服地方人民法院第一审判决的,有权在判决书送达之日起十五日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。

当事人不服地方人民法院第一审裁定的,有权在裁定书送达之日起十日内向上一级人民法院提起上诉。

第一百四十八条 上诉应当递交上诉状。上诉状的内容,应当包括当事人的姓名、法人的名称及其法定代表人的姓名或者其他组织的名称及其主要负责人的姓名;原审人民法院名称、案件的编号和案由;上诉的请求和理由。

第一百四十九条 上诉状应当通过原审人民法院提出,并按照对方当事人或者代表人的人数提出副本。

当事人直接向第二审人民法院上诉的,第二审人民法院应当在五日内将上诉状移交原审人民法院。

第一百五十条 原审人民法院收到上诉状,应当在五日内将上诉状副本送达对方当事人,对方当事人在收到之日起十五日内提出答辩状。人民法院应当在收到答辩状

之日起五日内将副本送达上诉人。对方当事人不提出答辩状的,不影响人民法院审理。原审人民法院收到上诉状、答辩状,应当在五日内连同全部案卷和证据,报送第二审人民法院。

第一百五十一条 第二审人民法院应当对上诉请求的有关事实和适用法律进行审查。

第一百五十二条 第二审人民法院对上诉案件,应当组成合议庭,开庭审理。经过阅卷和调查,询问当事人,在事实核对清楚后,合议庭认为不需要开庭审理的,也可以径行判决、裁定。第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,可以在本院进行,也可以到案件发生地或者原地人民法院所在地进行。

第一百五十三条 第二审人民法院对上诉案件,经过审理,按照下列情形,分别

处理:

(一)原判决认定事实清楚,适用法律正确的,判决驳回上诉,维持原判决;

(二)原判决适用法律错误的,依法改判;

(三)原判决认定事实错误,或者原判决认定事实不清,证据不足,裁定撤销原

判决,发回原审人民法院重审,或者查清事实后改判;

(四)原判决违反法定程序,可能影响案件正确判决的,裁定撤销原判决,发回原审人民法院重审。

当事人对重审案件的判决、裁定,可以上诉。

第一百五十四条 第二审人民法院对不服第一审人民法院裁定的上诉案件的处理,

一律使用裁定。

第一百五十五条 第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,可以进行调解。调解达成协议,

应当制作调解书,由审判人员、书记员署名,加盖人民法院印章。调解书送达后,原审人民法院的判决即视为撤销。

第一百五十六条 第二审人民法院判决宣告前,上诉人申请撤回上诉的,是否准许,由第二审人民法院裁定。

第一百五十七条 第二审人民法院审理上诉案件,除依照本章规定外,适用第一审普通程序。

第一百五十八条 第二审人民法院的判决、裁定,是终审的判决、裁定。

第一百五十九条 人民法院审理对判决的上诉案件,应当在第二审立案之日起三个月内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。

人民法院审理对裁定的上诉案件,应当在第二审立案之日起三十日内作出终审裁定。


第十五章 特别程序

第一节 一般规定

第一百六十条 人民法院审理选民资格案件、宣告失踪或者宣告死亡案件、认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力案件和认定财产无主案件,适用本章规定。本章没有规定的,适用本法和其他法律的有关规定。

第一百六十一条 依照本章程序审理的案件,实行一审终审。选民资格案件或者重大、疑难的案件,由审判员组成合议庭审理;其他案件由审判员一人独任审理。

第一百六十二条 人民法院在依照本章程序审理案件的过程中,发现本案属于民事权益争议的,应当裁定终结特别程序,并告知利害关系人可以另行起诉。

第一百六十三条 人民法院适用特别程序审理的案件,应当在立案之日起三十日内或者公告期满后三十日内审结。有特殊情况需要延长的,由本院院长批准。但审理选民资格的案件除外。

第二节 选民资格案件

第一百六十四条 公民不服选举委员会对选民资格的申诉所作的处理决定,可以在选举日的五日以前向选区所在地基层人民法院起诉。

第一百六十五条 人民法院受理选民资格案件后,必须在选举日前审结。审理时,起诉人、选举委员会的代表和有关公民必须参加人民法院的判决书,应当在选举日前送达选举委员会和起诉人,并通知有关公民。

第三节 宣告失踪、宣告死亡案件

第一百六十六条 公民下落不明满二年,利害关系人申请宣告其失踪的,向下落不明人住所地基层人民法院提出申请书应当写明失踪的事实、时间和请求,并附有公安机关或者其他有关机关关于该公民下落不明的书面证明。

第一百六十七条 公民下落不明满四年,或者因意外事故下落不明满二年,或者因意外事故下落不明,经有关机关证明该公民不可能生存,利害关系人申请宣告其死亡的,向下落不明人住所地基层人民法院提出。申请书应当写明下落不明的事实、时间和请求,并附有公安机关或者其他有关机关关于该公民下落不明的书面证明。

第一百六十八条 人民法院受理宣告失踪、宣告死亡案件后,应当发出寻找下落不明人的公告。宣告失踪的公告期间为三个月,宣告死亡的公告期间为一年。因意外事故下落不明,经有关机关证明该公民不可能生存的,宣告死亡的公告期间为三个月。公告期间届满,人民法院应当根据被宣告失踪、宣告死亡的事实是否得到确认,作出宣告失踪、宣告死亡的判决或者驳回申请的判决。

第一百六十九条 被宣告失踪、宣告死亡的公民重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。

第四节 认定公民无民事行为能力、限制民事行为能力案件

第一百七十条 申请认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力,由其近亲属或者其他利害关系人向该公民住所地基层人民法院提出申请书应当写明该公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的事实和根据。

第一百七十一条 人民法院受理申请后,必要时应当对被请求认定为无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的公民进行鉴定。申请人已提供鉴定结论的,应当对鉴定结论进行审查。

第一百七十二条 人民法院审理认定公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的案件,应当由该公民的近亲属为代理人,但申请人除外。近亲属互相推诿的,由人民法院指定其中一人为代理人。该公民健康情况许可的,还应当询问本人的意见。人民法院经审理认定申请有事实根据的,判决该公民为无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力人;认定申请没有事实根据的,应当判决予以驳回。

第一百七十三条 人民法院根据被认定为无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人或者他的监护人的申请,证实该公民无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的原因已经消除的,应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。

第五节 认定财产无主案件

第一百七十四条 申请认定财产无主,由公民、法人或者其他组织向财产所在地基层人民法院提出。申请书应当写明财产的种类、数量以及要求认定财产无主的根据。

第一百七十五条 人民法院受理申请后,经审查核实,应当发出财产认领公告。公告满一年无人认领的,判决认定财产无主,收归国家或者集体所有。

第一百七十六条 判决认定财产无主后,原财产所有人或者继承人出现,在民法通则规定的诉讼时效期间可以对财产提出请求,人民法院审查属实后,应当作出新判决,撤销原判决。


第十六章 审判监督程序

第一百七十七条 各级人民法院院长对本院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现确有错误,认为需要再审的,应当提交审判委员会讨论决定。最高人民法院对地方各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,上级人民法院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现确有错误的,有权提审或者指令下级人民法院再审。

第一百七十八条 当事人对已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,认为有错误的,可以向原审人民法院或者上一级人民法院申请再审,但不停止判决、裁定的执行。

第一百七十九条 当事人的申请符合下列情形之一的,人民法院应当再审:

(一)有新的证据,足以推翻原判决、裁定的;

(二)原判决、裁定认定事实的主要证据不足的;

(三)原判决、裁定适用法律确有错误的;

(四)人民法院违反法定程序,可能影响案件正确判决、裁定的;

(五)审判人员在审理该案件时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的。

人民法院对不符合前款规定的申请,予以驳回。

第一百八十条 当事人对已经发生法律效力的调解书,提出证据证明调解违反自愿原则或者调解协议的内容违反法律的,可以申请再审。经人民法院审查属实的,应当再审。

第一百八十一条 当事人对已经发生法律效力的解除婚姻关系的判决,不得申请再审。

第一百八十二条 当事人申请再审,应当在判决、裁定发生法律效力后二年内提出。

第一百八十三条 按照审判监督程序决定再审的案件,裁定中止原判决的执行。裁定由院长署名,加盖人民法院印章。

第一百八十四条 人民法院按照审判监督程序再审的案件,发生法律效力的判决、裁定是由第一审法院作出的,按照第一审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定,当事人以上诉;发生法律效力的判决、裁定是由第二审法院作出的,按照第二审程序审理所作的判决、裁定,是发生法律效力的判决、裁定;上级人民法院按照审判监督程提审的,按照第二审程序审理,所作的判决、裁定是发生法律效力的判决、裁定人民法院审理再审案件,应当另行组成合议庭。

第一百八十五条 最高人民检察院对各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、定,上级人民检察院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现有下列形之一的,应当按照审判监督程序提出抗诉:

(一)原判决、裁定认定事实的主要证据不足的;

(二)原判决、裁定适用法律确有错误的;

(三)人民法院违反法定程序,可能影响案件正确判决、裁定的;

(四)审判人员在审理该案件时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的。地方各级人民检察院对同级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,发现有款规定情形之一的,应当提请上级人民检察院按照审判监督程序提出抗诉。

第一百八十六条 人民检察院提出抗诉的案件,人民法院应当再审。

第一百八十七条 人民检察院决定对人民法院的判决、裁定提出抗诉的,应当制作抗诉书。

第一百八十八条 人民检察院提出抗诉的案件,人民法院再审时,应当通知人民检察院派员出席法庭。


第十七章 督促程序

第一百八十九条 债权人请求债务人给付金钱、有价证券,符合下列条件的,可以向有管辖权的基层人民法院申请支付令:

(一)债权人与债务人没有其他债务纠纷的;

(二)支付令能够送达债务人的。

申请书应当写明请求给付金钱或者有价证券的数量和所根据的事实、证据。

第一百九十条 债权人提出申请后,人民法院应当在五日内通知债权人是否受理。

第一百九十一条 人民法院受理申请后,经审查债权人提供的事实、证据,对债权债务关系明确、合法的,应当在受理之日起十五日内向债务人发出支付令;申请不成立的,裁定予以驳回。债务人应当自收到支付令之日起十五日内清偿债务,或者向人民法院提出书面异议。债务人在前款规定的期间不提出异议又不履行支付令的,债权人可以向人民法院申请执行。

第一百九十二条 人民法院收到债务人提出的书面异议后,应当裁定终结督促程序,支付令自行失效,债权人可以起诉。


第十八章 公示催告程序

第一百九十三条 按照规定可以背书转让的票据持有人,因票据被盗、遗失或者灭失,可以向票据支付地的基层人民法院申请公示催告。依照法律规定可以申请公示催告的其他事项,适用本章规定。申请人应当向人民法院递交申请书,写明票面金额、发票人、持票人、背书人等票据主要内容和申请的理由、事实。

第一百九十四条 人民法院决定受理申请,应当同时通知支付人停止支付,并在三日内发出公告,催促利害关系人申报权利。公示催告的期间,由人民法院根据情况决定,但不得少于六十日。

第一百九十五条 支付人收到人民法院停止支付的通知,应当停止支付,至公示催告程序终结。公示催告期间,转让票据权利的行为无效。

第一百九十六条 利害关系人应当在公示催告期间向人民法院申报。人民法院收到利害关系人的申报后,应当裁定终结公示催告程序,并通知申请人和支付人。申请人或者申报人可以向人民法院起诉。

第一百九十七条 没有人申报的,人民法院应当根据申请人的申请,作出判决,宣告票据无效。判决应当公告,并通知支付人。自判决公告之日起,申请人有权向支付人请求支付。

第一百九十八条 利害关系人因正当理由不能在判决前向人民法院申报的,自知道或者应当知道判决公告之日起一年内,可以向作出判决的人民法院起诉。



第十九章 企业法人破产还债程序

第一百九十九条 企业法人因严重亏损,无力清偿到期债务,债权人可以向人民法院申请宣告债务人破产还债,债务人也可以向人民法院申请宣告破产还债。

第二百条 人民法院裁定宣告进入破产还债程序后,应当在十日内通知债务人已知的债权人,并发出公告。

债权人应当在收到通知后三十日内,未收到通知的债权人应当自公告之日起三个月内,向人民法院申报债权。逾期未申报债权的,视为放弃债权。债权人可以组成债权人会议,讨论通过破产财产的处理和分配方案或者和解协议。

第二百零一条 人民法院可以组织有关机关和有关人员成立清算组织。清算组织负责破产财产的保管、清理、估价、处理和分配。清算组织可以依法进行必要的民事活动清算组织对人民法院负责并报告工作。

第二百零二条 企业法人与债权人会议达成和解协议的,经人民法院认可后,由人民法院发布公告,中止破产还债程序。和解协议自公告之日起具有法律效力。第二百零三条 已作为银行贷款等债权的抵押物或者其他担保物的财产,银行和其他债权人享有就该抵押物或者其他担保物优先受偿的权利。抵押物或者其他担保物的价款超过其所担保的债务数额的,超过部分属于破产还债的财产。

第二百零四条 破产财产优先拨付破产费用后,按照下列顺序清偿:

(一)破产企业所欠职工工资和劳动保险费用;

(二)破产企业所欠税款;

(三)破产债权。

破产财产不足清偿同一顺序的清偿要求的,按照比例分配。

第二百零五条 企业法人破产还债,由该企业法人住所地的人民法院管辖。

第二百零六条 全民所有制企业的破产还债程序适用中华人民共和国企业破产法的规定。不是法人的企业、个体工商户、农村承包经营户、个人合伙,不适用本章规定。



第三编 执行程序

第二十章 一般规定

第二百零七条 发生法律效力的民事判决、裁定,以及刑事判决、裁定中的财产部分,由第一审人民法院执行。法律规定由人民法院执行的其他法律文书,由被执行人住所地或者被执行的财产所在地人民法院执行。

第二百零八条 执行过程中,案外人对执行标的提出异议的,执行员应当按照法

定程序进行审查。理由不成立的,予以驳回;理由成立的,由院长批准中止执行。如果发现判决、裁定确有错误,按照审判监督程序处理。

第二百零九条 执行工作由执行员进行。采取强制执行措施时,执行员应当出示证件。执行完毕后,应当将执行情况制作录,由在场的有关人员签名或者盖章。基层人民法院、中级人民法院根据需要,可以设立执行机构。执行机构的职责由最高人民法院规定。

第二百一十条 被执行人或者被执行的财产在外地的,可以委托当地人民法院代为执行。受委托人民法院收到委托函件后,必须在十五日内开始执行,不得拒绝。执行完毕后,应当将执行结果及时函复委托人民法院;在三十日内如果还未执行完毕,也应当将执行情况函告委托人民法院。受委托人民法院自收到委托函件之日起十五日内不执行的,委托人民法院可以请求受委托人民法院的上级人民法院指令受委托人民法院执行。

第二百一十一条 在执行中,双方当事人自行和解达成协议的,执行员应当将协议内容记入笔录,由双方当事人签名或者盖章。一方当事人不履行和解协议的,人民法院可以根据对方当事人的申请,恢复对原生效法律文书的执行。

第二百一十二条 在执行中,被执行人向人民法院提供担保,并经申请执行人同意的,人民法院可以决定暂缓执行及暂缓执行的期限。被执行人逾期仍不履行的,人民法院有权执行被执行人的担保财产或者担保人的财产。

第二百一十三条 作为被执行人的公民死亡的,以其遗产偿还债务。作为被执行人的法人或者其他组织终止的,由其权利义务承受人履行义务。

第二百一十四条 执行完毕后,据以执行的判决、裁定和其他法律文书确有错误,被人民法院撤销的,对已被执行的财产,人民法院应当作出裁定,责令取得财产的人返还;拒不返还的,强制执行。

第二百一十五条 人民法院制作的调解书的执行,适用本编的规定。

第二十一章 执行的申请和移送

第二百一十六条 发生法律效力的民事判决、裁定,当事人必须履行。一方拒绝履行的,对方当事人可以向人民法院申请执行,也可以由审判员移送执行员执行。调解书和其他应当由人民法院执行的法律文书,当事人必须履行。一方拒绝履行的,对方当事人可以向人民法院申请执行。

第二百一十七条 对依法设立的仲裁机构的裁决,一方当事人不履行的,对方当事人可以向有管辖权的人民法院申请执行。受申请的人民法院应当执行。申请人提出证据证明仲裁裁决有下列情形之一的,经人民法院组成合议庭审查核实,裁定不予执行:

(一)当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的;

(二)裁决的事项不属于仲裁协议的范围或者仲裁机构无权仲裁的;

(三)仲裁庭的组成或者仲裁的程序违反法定程序的;

(四)认定事实的主要证据不足的;

(五)适用法律确有错误的;

(六)仲裁员在仲裁该案时有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁决行为的。

人民法院认定执行该裁决违背社会公共利益的,裁定不予执行。

裁定书应当送达双方当事人和仲裁机构。

仲裁裁决被人民法院裁定不予执行的,当事人可以根据双方达成的书面仲裁协议

重新申请仲裁,也可以向人民法院起诉。

第二百一十八条 对公证机关依法赋予强制执行效力的债权文书,一方当事人不履行的,对方当事人可以向有管辖权的人民法院申请执行,受申请的人民法院应当执行。

公证债权文书确有错误的,人民法院裁定不予执行,并将裁定书送达双方当事和公证机关。

第二百一十九条 申请执行的期限,双方或者一方当事人是公民的为一年,双方是法人或者其他组织的为六个月。前款规定的期限,从法律文书规定履行期间的最后一日起计算;法律文书规定期履行的,从规定的每次履行期间的最后一日起计算。

第二百二十条 执行员接到申请执行书或者移交执行书,应当向被执行人发出执行通知,责令其在指定的期间履行,逾期不履行的,强制执行。


第二十二章 执行措施

第二百二十一条 被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权向银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位查询被执行人的存款情况,有权冻结划拨被执行人的存款,但查询、冻结、划拨存款不得超出被执行人应当履行义务的围。

人民法院决定冻结、划拨存款,应当作出裁定,并发出协助执行通知书,银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位必须办理。第二百二十二条 被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权扣留、提取被执行人应当履行义务部分的收入。但应当保留被执行人及其所扶养家属的生活必需费用。人民法院扣留、提取收入时,应当作出裁定,并发出协助执行通知书,被执行人所在单位、银行、信用合作社和其他有储蓄业务的单位必须办理。

第二百二十三条 被执行人未按执行通知履行法律文书确定的义务,人民法院有权查封、扣押、冻结、拍卖、变卖被执行人应当履行义务部分的财产。但应当保留被执行人及其所扶养家属的生活必需品。采取前款措施,人民法院应当作出裁定。

第二百二十四条 人民法院查封、扣押财产时,被执行人是公民的,应当通知被执行人或者他的成年家属到场;被执行人是法人或者其他组织的,应当通知其法定代表人或者主要负责人到场。拒不到场的,不影响执行。被执行人是公民的,其工作单位或者财产所在地的基层组织应当派人参加。对被查封、扣押的财产,执行员必须造具清单,由在场人签名或者盖章后,交被执行人一份。被执行人是公民的,也可以交他的成年家属一份。

第二百二十五条 被查封的财产,执行员可以指定被执行人负责保管。因被执行人的过错造成的损失,由被执行人承担。

第二百二十六条 财产被查封、扣押后,执行员应当责令被执行人在指定期间履行法律文书确定的义务。被执行人逾期不履行的,人民法院可以按照规定交有关单位拍卖或者变卖被查封、扣押的财产。国家禁止自由买卖的物品,交有关单位按照国家规定的价格收购。

第二百二十七条 被执行人不履行法律文书确定的义务,并隐匿财产的,人民法院有权发出搜查令,对被执行人及其住所或者财产隐匿地进行搜查。采取前款措施,由院长签发搜查令。

第二百二十八条 法律文书指定交付的财物或者票证,由执行员传唤双方当事人当面交付,或者由执行员转交,并由被交付人签收。有关单位持有该项财物或者票证的,应当根据人民法院的协助执行通知书转交,并由被交付人签收。有关公民持有该项财物或者票证的,人民法院通知其交出。拒不交出的,强制执行。

第二百二十九条 强制迁出房屋或者强制退出土地,由院长签发公告,责令被执行人在指定期间履行。被执行人逾期不履行的,由执行员强制执行。强制执行时,被执行人是公民的,应当通知被执行人或者他的成年家属到场;被执行人是法人或者其他组织的,应当通知其法定代表人或者主要负责人到场。拒不到场的,不影响执行。被执行人是公民的,其工作单位或者房屋、土地所在地的基层组织应当派人参加。执行员应当将强制执行情况记入笔录,由在场人签名或者盖章。强制迁出房屋被搬出的财物,由人民法院派人运至指定处所,交给被执行人。被执行人是公民的,也可以交给他的成年家属。因拒绝接收而造成的损失,由被执行人承担。

第二百三十条 在执行中,需要办理有关财产权证照转移手续的,人民法院可以向有关单位发出协助执行通知书,有关单位必须办理。

第二百三十一条 对判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的行为,被执行人未按执通知履行的,人民法院可以强制执行或者委托有关单位或者其他人完成,费用由被执行人承担。

第二百三十二条 被执行人未按判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的期间履行给付金钱义务的,应当加倍支付迟延履行期间的债务利息。被执行人未按判决、裁定和其他法律文书指定的期间履行其他义务的,应当支付迟延履行金。

第二百三十三条 人民法院采取本法第二百二十一条、第二百二十二条、第二百二十三条规定的执行措施后,被执行人仍不能偿还债务的,应当继续履行义务。债权人发现被执行人有其他财产的,可以随时请求人民法院执行。

第二十三章 执行中止和终结

第二百三十四条 有下列情形之一的,人民法院应当裁定中止执行:

(一)申请人表示可以延期执行的;

(二)案外人对执行标的提出确有理由的异议的;

(三)作为一方当事人的公民死亡,需要等待继承人继承权利或者承担义务的;

(四)作为一方当事人的法人或者其他组织终止,尚未确定权利义务承受人的;

(五)人民法院认为应当中止执行的其他情形。

中止的情形消失后,恢复执行。

第二百三十五条 有下列情形之一的,人民法院裁定终结执行:

(一)申请人撤销申请的;

(二)据以执行的法律文书被撤销的;

(三)作为被执行人的公民死亡,无遗产可供执行,又无义务承担人的;

(四)追索赡养费、扶养费、抚育费案件的权利人死亡的;

(五)作为被执行人的公民因生活困难无力偿还借款,无收入来源,又丧失劳动能

力的;

(六)人民法院认为应当终结执行的其他情形。

第二百三十六条 中止和终结执行的裁定,送达当事人后立即生效。



第四编 涉外民事诉讼程序的特别规定

第二十四章 一般原则

第二百三十七条 在中华人民共和国领域内进行涉外民事诉讼,适用本编规定。本编没有规定的,适用本法其他有关规定。

第二百三十八条 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用该国际条约的规定,但中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。

第二百三十九条 对享有外交特权与豁免的外国人、外国组织或者国际组织提起的民事诉讼,应当依照中华人民共和国有关法律和中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定办理。

第二百四十条 人民法院审理涉外民事案件,应当使用中华人民共和国通用的语言、文字。当事人要求提供翻译的,可以提供,费用由当事人承担。

第二百四十一条 外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,需要委托律师代理诉讼的,必须委托中华人民共和国的律师。

第二百四十二条 在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织委托中华人民共和国律师或者其他人代理诉讼,从中华人民共和国领域外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,应当经所在国公证机关证明,并经中华人民共和国驻该国使领馆认证,或者履行中华人民共和国与该所在国订立的有关条约中规定的证明手续后,才具有效力。


第二十五章 管 辖

第二百四十三条 因合同纠纷或者其他财产权益纠纷,对在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的被告提起的诉讼,如果合同在中华人民共和国领域内签订或者履行,或者诉讼标的物在中华人民共和国领域内,或者被告在中华人民共和国领域内有可供扣押的财产,或者被告在中华人民共和国领域内设有代表机构,可以由合同签订地、合同履行地、诉讼标的物所在地、可供扣押财产所在地、侵权行为地或者代表机构住所地人民法院管辖。

第二百四十四条 涉外合同或者涉外财产权益纠纷的当事人,可以用书面协议选择与争议有实际联系的地点的法院管辖。选择中华人民共和国人民法院管辖的,不得违反本法关于级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。

第二百四十五条 涉外民事诉讼的被告对人民法院管辖不提出异议,并应诉答辩的,视为承认该人民法院为有管辖权的法院。

第二百四十六条 因在中华人民共和国履行中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由中华人民共和国人民法院管辖。


第二十六章 送达、期间

第二百四十七条 人民法院对在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的当事人送达诉

讼文书,可以采用下列方式:

(一)依照受送达人所在国与中华人民共和国缔结或者共同参加的国际条约中规

定的方式送达;

(二)通过外交途径送达;

(三)对具有中华人民共和国国籍的受送达人,可以委托中华人民共和国驻受送

达人所在国的使领馆代为送达;

(四)向受送达人委托的有权代其接受送达的诉讼代理人送达;

(五)向受送达人在中华人民共和国领域内设立的代表机构或者有权接受送达的分支机构、业务代办人送达;

(六)受送达人所在国的法律允许邮寄送达的,可以邮寄送达,自邮寄之日起满六个月,送达回证没有退回,但根据各种情况足以认定已经送达的,期间届满之日视为送达;

(七)不能用上述方式送达的,公告送达,自公告之日起满六个月,即视为送达。

第二百四十八条 被告在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的,人民法院应当将起

诉状副本送达被告,并通知被告在收到起诉状副本后三十日内提出答辩状。被告申请延期的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第二百四十九条 在中华人民共和国领域内没有住所的当事人,不服第一审人民法院判决、裁定的,有权在判决书、裁定书送达之日起三十日内提起上诉。被上诉人在收到上诉状副本后,应当在三十日内提出答辩状。当事人不能在法定期间提起上或者提出答辩状,申请延期的,是否准许,由人民法院决定。

第二百五十条 人民法院审理涉外民事案件的期间,不受本法第一百三十五条、

第一百五十九条规定的限制。


第二十七章 财产保全

第二百五十一条 当事人依照本法第九十二条的规定可以向人民法院申请财产保全。利害关系人依照本法第九十三条的规定可以在起诉前向人民法院申请财产保全。

第二百五十二条 人民法院裁定准许诉前财产保全后,申请人应当在三十日内提起诉讼。逾期不起诉的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第二百五十三条 人民法院裁定准许财产保全后,被申请人提供担保的,人民法院应当解除财产保全。

第二百五十四条 申请有错误的,申请人应当赔偿被申请人因财产保全所遭受的损失。

第二百五十五条 人民法院决定保全的财产需要监督的,应当通知有关单位负责监督,费用由被申请人承担。

第二百五十六条 人民法院解除保全的命令由执行员执行。


第二十八章 仲 裁

第二百五十七条 涉外经济贸易、运输和海事中发生的纠纷,当事人在合同中订有仲裁条款或者事后达成书面仲裁协议,提交中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构仲裁的,当事人不得向人民法院起诉。当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的,可以向人
民法院起诉。

第二百五十八条 当事人申请采取财产保全的,中华人民共和国的涉外仲裁机构应当将当事人的申请,提交被申请人住所地或者财产所在地的中级人民法院裁定。

第二百五十九条 经中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构裁决的,当事人不得向人民法院起诉。一方当事人不履行仲裁裁决的,对方当事人可以向被申请人住所地或者财产所在地的中级人民法院申请执行。

第二百六十条 对中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构作出的裁决,被申请人提出证据证明仲裁裁决有下列情形之一的,经人民法院组成合议庭审查核实,裁定不予执行:

(一)当事人在合同中没有订有仲裁条款或者事后没有达成书面仲裁协议的;

(二)被申请人没有得到指定仲裁员或者进行仲裁程序的通知,或者由于其他不

属于被申请人负责的原因未能陈述意见的;

(三)仲裁庭的组成或者仲裁的程序与仲裁规则不符的;

(四)裁决的事项不属于仲裁协议的范围或者仲裁机构无权仲裁的。人民法院认定执行该裁决违背社会公共利益的,裁定不予执行。

第二百六十一条 仲裁裁决被人民法院裁定不予执行的,当事人可以根据双方达成的书面仲裁协议重新申请仲裁,也可以向人民法院起诉。


第二十九章 司法协助

第二百六十二条 根据中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则,人民法院和外国法院可以相互请求,代为送达文书、调查取证以及进行其他诉讼行为。外国法院请求协助的事项有损于中华人民共和国的主权、安全或者社会公共利益的,人民法院不予执行。

第二百六十三条 请求和提供司法协助,应当依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约所规定的途径进行;没有条约关系的,通过外交途径进行。外国驻中华人民共和国的使领馆可以向该国公民送达文书和调查取证,但不得违反中华人民共和国的法律,并不得采取强制措施。除前款规定的情况外,未经中华人民共和国主管机关准许,任何外国机关或者个人不得在中华人民共和国领域内送达文书、调查取证。

第二百六十四条 外国法院请求人民法院提供司法协助的请求书及其所附文件,应当附有中文译本或者国际条约规定的其他文字文本。人民法院请求外国法院提供司法协助的请求书及其所附文件,应当附有该国文字译本或者国际条约规定的其他文字文本。

第二百六十五条 人民法院提供司法协助,依照中华人民共和国法律规定的程序进行。外国法院请求采用特殊方式的,也可以按照其请求的特殊方式进行,但请求采用的特殊方式不得违反中华人民共和国法律。

第二百六十六条 人民法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,如果被执行人或者其财产不在中华人民共和国领域内,当事人请求执行的,可以由当事人直接向有管辖权的外国法院申请承认和执行,也可以由人民法院依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定,或者按照互惠原则,请求外国法院承认和执行。中华人民共和国涉外仲裁机构作出的发生法律效力的仲裁裁决,当事人请求执行的,如果被执行人或者其财产不在中华人民共和国领域内,应当由当事人直接向有管

辖权的外国法院申请承认和执行。

第二百六十七条 外国法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,需要中华人民共和国人民法院承认和执行的,可以由当事人直接向中华人民共和国有管辖权的中级人民法院申请承认和执行,也可以由外国法院依照该国与中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约的规定,或者按照互惠原则,请求人民法院承认和执行。

第二百六十八条 人民法院对申请或者请求承认和执行的外国法院作出的发生法律效力的判决、裁定,依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则进行审查后,认为不违反中华人民共和国法律的基本原则或者国家主权、安全、社会公共利益的,裁定承认其效力,需要执行的,发出执行令,依照本法的有关规定执行。违反中华人民共和国法律的基本原则或者国家主权、安全、社会公共利益的,不予承认和执行。

第二百六十九条 国外仲裁机构的裁决,需要中华人民共和国人民法院承认和执行的,应当由当事人直接向被执行人住所地或者其财产所在地的中级人民法院申请,人民法院应当依照中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则办理。

第二百七十条 本法自公布之日起施行,《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法(试行)》

同时废止。


 

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