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China releases regs for online copyright disputes
China releases regs for online copyright disputes
最高人民法院关于审理涉及计算机网络著作权纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释


China releases regs for online copyright disputes
(2 January 2001) Supreme People's Court of China released its interpretations of laws on solving online copyright disputes on Dec. 20, 2000, which took effect one day later. The full text of the interpretations appeared in the Dec. 20, 2000, Renmin Ribao(People's Daily). "Interpretations of the Supreme People's Court on Laws For Trying Cases Involving Internet Copyright Disputes"(Adopted at the 1144th session of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on Nov. 22, 2000)

To appropriately try cases involving Internet copyright disputes, presented here are interpretations of a number of related legal issues in accordance with provisions in the "General Rule of the Civil Law," the "Copyright Law" and the "Law of Civil Procedure."

Article 1: Cases involving copyright infringement disputes on the Internet are subject to the jurisdiction of the court in the locality where the infringement takes place or where the defendant resides. The locality where the infringement takes place refers to the venue where the equipment of the alleged infringement, such as the Internet server or the computer terminal, is located. In cases where the locality of the infringement or where the defendant resides is hard to determine, equipment such as a computer terminal on which the plaintiff has found the content of the infringement will be considered as the locality for the infringement.

Article 2: Works under the protection of the "Copyright Law" include the digital form of all works prescribed in Article 3 of the "Copyright Law." Other products of intellectual creation that are not defined in Article 3 of the "Copyright Law," but are original creations in literature, art and science and can be duplicated in certain tangible forms, should also be protected by the People's Court. Provisions pertaining to copyrights in Article 10 of the "Copyright Law" are all applicable to the copyrights of digitized works. Public dissemination of works via the Internet is permitted by the "Copyright Law." The copyright holder has the right to use or permit others to use the works in such a manner and be remunerated.

Article 3: For works that have been published in newspapers and magazines or disseminated on the Internet, except where the copyright holder or the Internet service provider clearly states that the works shall not be carried and extracted, Web sites do not constitute a copyright infringement if they recarry and extract such works, make payment and provide sources in accordance with related regulations. However, a Web site that recarries and extracts works beyond the scope as prescribed for reprinting in newspaper and magazine articles shall be considered copyright infringement.

Article 4: For ISPs who participate in copyright infringement via the Internet, or instigate or assist others in copyright infringement via the Internet, the People's Court shall hold them responsible for their share of the infringement in accordance with provisions in Article 130 of the "General Rule of the Civil Law."

Article 5: If Internet content providers (ICPs) are fully aware of copyright infringement by their users via the Internet, or despite warnings from the copyright holder who has adequate evidence, fail to take measures such as deleting the content involving copyright infringement in order to avoid charges of infringement, the People's Court shall, according to provisions in Article 130 of the "General Rule of the Civil Law," investigate and affix the responsibility for their joint infringement with the Internet user.

Article 6: For ICPs that refuse, in the absence of convincing reasons, to provide the online registered data about a suspected copyright violator as requested by a copyright holder to investigate and affix responsibility for the violation, the People's Court shall, in accordance with provisions in Article 106 of the "General Rule of the Civil Law," investigate and affix responsibility for their part in the infringement.

Article 7: The copyright holder, upon discovering information related to an infringement, must warn the ISP or ask for registered online data about the copyright violator. In case of failure to provide proof of identity, a certificate of the copyright ownership and proof of infringement, the warning or request of the copyright holder shall be considered invalid. If the copyright holder provides the aforesaid certificates but the ISP fails to take any action, the copyright holder may take legal action to the People's Court to order the ISP to stop the infringement. The People's Court shall grant approval.

Article 8: If the ISP takes measures such as deleting the content in question upon the warning of the copyright holder who has adequate evidence, and the accused party demands the ISP to bear responsibility for contract violation, the People's Court shall not grant approval. If the copyright holder makes a false accusation of infringement and the accused party suffers losses due to measures taken by the ISP and thus demands compensation, the People's Court shall rule that the party giving the warning should bear the responsibility for compensation.

Article 9: During the trial of cases involving online copyright-infringement disputes, the People's Court should apply the following laws in light of the different circumstances of each case. To verify infringement of personal copyrights such as the right for publication, provisions in Clause 1, 2, 3 and 4 in Article 45 of the "Copyright Law" shall be referred to. To verify infringement of the right to use works through public dissemination, provisions in Clause 5 in Article 45 of the "Copyright Law" shall be referred to. To verify infringement of the right to remuneration, provisions in Clause 6 in Article 45 of the "Copyright Law" shall be referred to. To verify infringement upon the rights of audio-visual product makers, performers, and radio and television organizations, provisions in Clause 8 in Article 45 of the "Copyright Law" shall be referred to. To verify plagiarism, provisions in Clause 1 in Article 46 of the "Copyright Law" shall be referred to.

Article 10: To determine the appropriate amount of compensation for the infringement, the People's Court may, according to the request of the infringed party, calculate the amount by considering direct economic losses and anticipated interest lost due to the infringement. The amount of compensation can also be calculated based on how much the copyright violator profited from the infringement. If the guilty party is unable to prove its costs or necessary expenses, its income from the infringement should be considered its profit. If the amount of the plaintiff?|s losses cannot be determined, the People's Court may, according to the plaintiff?|s request, determine the amount of compensation is between 500 renminbi (US$64) and Rmb 300,000 (US$36,241). The compensation shall not exceed Rmb 500,000 (US$60,401).



最高人民法院关于审理涉及计算机网络著作权纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的解释
(2000年11月22日最高人民法院审判委员会第1144次会议通过)
为了正确审理涉及计算机网络的著作权纠纷案件,根据民法通则、著作权法和民事诉讼法等法律的规定,对这类案件适用法律的若干问题解释如下:

第一条 网络著作权侵权纠纷案件由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。侵权行为地包括实施被诉侵权行为的网络服务器、计算机终端等设备所在地。对难以确定侵权行为地和被告住所地的,原告发现侵权内容的计算机终端等设备所在地可以视为侵权行为地。

第二条 受著作权法保护的作品,包括著作权法第三条规定的各类作品的数字化形式。在网络环境下无法归于著作权法第三条列举的作品范围,但在文学、艺术和科学领域内具有独创性并能以某种有形形式复制的其他智力创作成果,人民法院应当予以保护。

著作权法第十条对著作权各项权利的规定均适用于数字化作品的著作权。将作品通过网络向公众传播,属于著作权法规定的使用作品的方式,著作权人享有以该种方式使用或者许可他人使用作品,并由此获得报酬的权利。

第三条 已在报刊上刊登或者网络上传播的作品,除著作权人声明或者上载该作品的网络服务提供者受著作权人的委托声明不得转载、摘编的以外,网站予以转载、摘编并按有关规定支付报酬、注明出处的,不构成侵权。但网站转载、摘编作品超过有关报刊转载作品范围的,应当认定为侵权。

第四条 网络服务提供者通过网络参与他人侵犯著作权行为,或者通过网络教唆、帮助他人实施侵犯著作权行为的,人民法院应当根据民法通则第一百三十条的规定,追究其与其他行为人或者直接实施侵权行为人的共同侵权责任。

第五条 提供内容服务的网络服务提供者,明知网络用户通过网络实施侵犯他人著作权的行为,或者经著作权人提出确有证据的警告,但仍不采取移除侵权内容等措施以消除侵权后果的,人民法院应当根据民法通则第一百三十条的规定,追究其与该网络用户的共同侵权责任。

第六条 提供内容服务的网络服务提供者,对著作权人要求其提供侵权行为人在其网络的注册资料以追究行为人的侵权责任,无正当理由拒绝提供的,人民法院应当根据民法通则第一百零六条的规定,追究其相应的侵权责任。

第七条 著作权人发现侵权信息向网络服务提供者提出警告或者索要侵权行为人网络注册资料时,不能出示身份证明、著作权权属证明及侵权情况证明的,视为未提出警告或者未提出索要请求。

著作权人出示上述证明后网络服务提供者仍不采取措施的,可以在提起诉讼时申请人民法院先行裁定停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除影响,人民法院应予准许。

第八条 网络服务提供者经著作权人提出确有证据的警告而采取移除被控侵权内容等措施,被控侵权人要求网络服务提供者承担违约责任的,人民法院不予支持。

著作权人指控侵权不实,被控侵权人因网络服务提供者采取措施遭受损失而请求赔偿的,人民法院应当判令由提出警告的人承担赔偿责任。

第九条 人民法院审理网络著作权侵权纠纷案件,应当根据案件不同情况,分别适用下列法律:

(一)认定侵害发表权等著作人身权的,适用著作权法第四十五条第(一)、(二)、(三)、(四)项的规定;

(二)认定向公众传播作品侵害使用权的,适用著作权法第四十五条第(五)项的规定;

(三)认定侵害获得报酬权的,适用著作权法第四十五条第(六)项的规定;

(四)认定侵害录音录像制作者、表演者、广播电视组织等邻接权,或者认定故意去除或者改变著作权管理信息而导致侵权后果的行为构成侵权的,适用著作权法第四十五条第(八)项的规定;

(五)认定剽窃、抄袭他人作品的,适用著作权法第四十六条第(一)项的规定。

第十条 人民法院在确定侵权赔偿数额时,可以根据被侵权人的请求,按照其因侵权行为所受直接经济损失和所失预期应得利益计算赔偿数额;也可以按照侵权人因侵权行为所得利益计算赔偿数额。侵权人不能证明其成本或者必要费用的,其因侵权行为所得收入,即为所得利益。

被侵权人损失额不能确定的,人民法院依被侵权人的请求,可以根据侵害情节在人民币500元以上30万元以下确定赔偿数额,最多不得超过人民币50万元。

 

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