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Judicial Interpretations Made by PRC Supreme Court Relating to Application Law in Hearing Trademark
Judicial Interpretations Made by PRC Supreme Court Relating to Application Law in Hearing Trademark
驰名商标法司法解释

Judicial Interpretations Made by PRC Supreme Court Relating to Application Law in Hearing Trademark
The following explanations of the application of law are made in accordance with the General Principles of Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Trademark Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Civil Procedural Law of the People’s Republic of China for the purpose of correct adjudication of trademark dispute:

Article 1
The following acts are acts set forth in Article 52(5) of the Trademark Law that cause other injuries to the exclusive right to use a trademark:

(1) use of words identical with or similar to the trademarks of others prominently as names of enterprises on identical or similar goods likely to cause public misidentification;

(2) reproductions, imitations and translations of others’ registered well-known trademarks or the principal parts thereof to be used as trademarks on goods that are not identical or similar which mislead the public and likely to cause injury to the interest of the registrants of the well-known trademarks;

(3) use of words identical with or similar to the trademarks of others as domain names to conduct electronic commerce for the trading of relevant goods through such domain names and likely to cause public misidentification;

Article 2
In accordance with Clause 1 of Article 13 of the Trademark Law, any one who reproduces, imitates or translates well-known trademarks of others not registered in China or the principal parts thereof and uses the same as trademarks on identical or similar goods shall be civilly liable to cease and desist from the infringement if the use of the same will likely cause confusion.

Article 3
The licenses to use trademarks as set forth in Article 40 of the Trademark Law include the following three categories:

(1) Exclusive license, which means a license granted by a trademark registrant to allow a single licensee to use the trademark for an agreed period of time, within an agreed geographic area and in an agreed manner and that the trademark registrant may not use such registered trademark as agreed;

(2) Sole license, which means a license granted by a trademark registrant to allow a single licensee to use the trademark for an agreed period of time, within an agreed geographic area and in an agreed manner and that the trademark registrant may use the trademark as agreed, but may not allow any other to use such registered trademark;

(3) General license, which means a license granted by a trademark registrant to allow a single licensee to use the trademark for an agreed period of time, within an agreed geographic area and in an agreed manner and that the trademark registrant may use the trademark as agreed or allow others to use such registered trademark.

Article 4
The interested parties as provided for in Article 53 of the Trademark Law include licensees under registered trademark licensing agreements and lawful successors and assigns of the property rights of registered trademarks.

In the event of infringement upon the exclusive right to use a registered trademark, the licensee under an exclusive licensing agreement may bring an action before the people’s court; the licensee under a restrictive licensing agreement may bring an action jointly with the trademark registrant before the people’ court or bring such an action singly if the registrant does not bring an action; the licensee under a general licensing agreement may bring an action pursuant to an express authorization of the trademark registrant.

Article 5
If a trademark registrant or an interested party applies for an extension of a registered trademark during the grace period for extension of registered trademarks and, before the approval for the extension is obtained, brings an action against a third party infringement upon the exclusive right to use the registered trademark, the people’s court shall accept and hear the case.

Article 6
For any civil case brought against infringement upon the exclusive right to use registered trademarks, the people’s courts in places where the infringement takes place or where the infringing goods are stored or sealed for investigation and impounded or where the defendant resides shall have jurisdiction over the case as provided for in Articles 13 and 52 of the Trademark Law.
As provided for in the preceding paragraph, the place where the infringing goods are stored means the place where infringing goods are stored in material quantity or where such goods are often stored; the place where the infringing goods are sealed for investigation and impounded means the place where the infringing goods are sealed for investigation and impounded by the administrative authorities of the customs and of the industry and commerce.

Article 7
For a joint action involving multiple defendants and different places where the infringement has taken place, the plaintiff may choose the people’s court in the place where one of the defendants had carried out the infringement; for any action against only one of the defendants, the people’s court in the place where the such defendant has carried out the infringement shall have jurisdiction over the case.

Article 8
The relevant public as provided for in the Trademark Law means the consumers of certain type of goods or service represented by a trademark or any one closely related to the promotion and sale or such goods and service.

Article 9
The identical trademark as provided for in Article 52(1) of the Trademark Law means the trademark against which infringement is alleged represents no materials visual difference from the registered trademark of the plaintiff.

The similar trademark as provided for in Article 52(1) of the Trademark Law means the trademark against which infringement is alleged that, when compared with the registered trademark of the plaintiff, is similar in the shape of words, phonetics, meaning or the shape of the graphics and its color, or in the general formation resulting from the positions of the all the principal elements, or in the three-dimensional shape or the formation of colors, and is likely to cause misidentification among the general public as to the origin of the goods or misperception that the origin of the goods is specially connected to the goods represented by the registered trademark of the plaintiff.

Article 10
Pursuant to Article 52(1) of the Trademark Law, the people’s court shall determine what constitutes identical or similar trademarks in accordance with the following principles:

(1) measure against the attention generally applied by the relevant public;
(2) conduct both an overall comparison of the trademarks and a comparison of the principal parts of the trademarks and the comparisons shall be conducted separately with the objects of comparison isolated from one another;
(3) to determine whether the trademarks are similar, consideration shall be made to the prominence and popularity of the registered trademarks for which protection is being sought.

Article 11
The similar goods as provided for in Article 52(1) of the Trademark Law mean goods that share similarities in function, usage, manufacturing entities and targeted consumers, or goods that cause the relevant public to believe the existence of a special relationship or are likely to cause confusion.

Similar services mean services that share similarities in purpose, method and targeted consumers of such services, or services that cause the relevant public to believe the existence of a special relationship or are likely to cause confusion.

If goods are said to be similar to services, it means the existence of a special relationship between the goods and services and the likelihood of the relevant public being confused about them.

Article 13
When the people’s court ascertains the amount of compensation to be paid by the infringing party pursuant to Clause 1 of Article 56 of the Trademark Law, it may calculate the amount of compensation on the basis of the calculating formula selected by the claimant.

Article 14
The amount of gains obtained as a result of infringement as provided for in Clause 1 of Article 56 of the Trademark Law may be calculated by multiplying the quantity of sales of the infringing goods by the unit profit of such goods sold; if the unit profit of such goods cannot be ascertained, the calculation shall be based on the unit profit of the goods bearing the registered trademark.

Article 15
The losses caused by the infringement as provided for in Clause 1 of Article 56 of the Trademark Law may be calculated by multiplying the amount of sale reduction of the goods suffered by the claimant as a result of the infringement or the amount of sale of the infringing goods by the unit profit of the goods bearing the registered trademark.

Article 16
If it is difficult to determine both the amount of gains obtained by the infringer from his infringement and the losses resulting from the infringement suffered by the victim of the infringement, the people’s court may rely on the claimant’s request or use its discretion pursuant to Clause 2 of Article 56 of the Trademark Law to determine the amount of compensation.

In its determination of the amount of compensation, the people’s court shall take into consideration the nature, duration and consequence of the infringement, the reputation of the trademark in question, the amount of licensing fees for the use of the trademark, the type, duration and scope of the trademark license and to reasonable costs to enjoin the infringement.

The parties involved shall be permitted to reach a settlement agreement as to the amount of compensation pursuant to the first clause of this Article.

Article 17
The reasonable costs incurred to enjoin infringement as provided for in Clause 1 of Article 56 of the Trademark Law include the reasonable costs incurred by the claimant or its authorized agent to conduct investigation and evidence collection in respect of any infringement.

At the request presented by the party in action or as the specific circumstances of the case may require, the people’s court may include legal fees in the amount of compensation pursuant to the regulations of the relevant governmental departments.

Article 18
The statute of limitation for infringement upon the exclusive right to use registered trademarks is two years, commencing from the time when the trademark registrant or claimant knew or should have known the infringement. If the trademark registrant or claimant brings an action beyond the two-year limitation and if the infringement continues at the time of the action, during the validity period of the exclusive right to use the trademark, the people’s court shall rule to enjoin the infringement by the defendant and the amount of compensation for the infringement shall be calculated for two years dating back from the time when the claimant brings the action before the people’s court.

Article 19
Failure to file a trademark licensing agreement shall not affect the validity of the agreement unless the parties thereto provide otherwise.

Any trademark agreement not having been files with the Trademark Office shall not be used against any good-faith third party.

Article 20
The transfer of a registered trademark shall not affect the validity of a trademark licensing agreement which took effect before the transfer unless the trademark licensing agreement provides otherwise.

Article 21
When hearing cases of infringement upon the exclusive right to use registered trademarks, the people’s court may, pursuant to Article 134 of the General Principles of Civil Law, Article 53 of the Trademark Law and the specific circumstances of the cases, rule to order the infringer to bear such civil liabilities as to cease and desist the infringement, eliminate interference, compensate for losses and eliminate adverse effects. It may also order such civil sanctions as fines, confiscation of the infringing goods, counterfeit trademark representations and materials, tools and equipment used specifically to produce infringing goods. The amount of fines may be determined by reference to the Implementing Rules of the Trademark Law of the People’s Republic of China.

For the same act of infringement upon the exclusive right to use a registered trademark to which the administration for industry and commerce has rendered administrative sanctions, the people’s court shall not render any civil sanction.

Article 22
When hearing trademark disputes, the people’s court may, pursuant to the request of the parties involved and the specific circumstances of the cases, ascertain whether the registered trademarks involved are well-known pursuant to law.Well-known trademarks shall be ascertained pursuant to Article 14 of the Trademark Law.

If a party seeks protection of a trademark already ascertained as well-known by the administrative authorities or by the people’s court, and the opposite party does not raise any objection in respect of the well-known mark involved, the people’s court shall not carry out any investigation thereof. In the event of any such objection, the people’s court shall investigate the matter pursuant to Article 14 of the Trademark Law.

Article 23
The explanations made in respect of trademarks for goods apply to service marks.

Article 24
In the event of any inconsistency between any relevant antecedent regulations and these explanations, these explanations shall prevail.(liu Yuanyue translated)



驰名商标法司法解释
      为了正确审理商标纠纷案件,根据《中华人民共和国民法通则》、《中华人民共和国合同法》、《中华人民共和国商标法》、《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等法律的规定,就适用法律若干问题解释如下: 

第一条 下列行为属于商标法第五十二条第(五)项规定的给他人注册商标专用权造成其他损害的行为:
  (一)将与他人注册商标相同或者相近似的文字作为企业的字号在相同或者类似商品上突出使用,容易使相关公众产生误认的;
(二)复制、摹仿、翻译他人注册的驰名商标或其主要部分在不相同或者不相类似商品上作为商标使用,误导公众,致使该驰名商标注册人的利益可能受到损害的;
  (三)将与他人注册商标相同或者相近似的文字注册为域名,并且通过该域名进行相关商品交易的电子商务,容易使相关公众产生误认的。

第二条 依据商标法第十三条第一款的规定,复制、摹仿、翻译他人未在中国注册的驰名商标或其主要部分,在相同或者类似商品上作为商标使用,容易导致混淆的,应当承担停止侵害的民事法律责任。

第三条 商标法第四十条规定的商标使用许可包括以下三类:
  (一)独占使用许可,是指商标注册人在约定的期间、地域和以约定的方式,将该注册商标仅许可一个被许可人使用,商标注册人依约定不得使用该注册商标;
  (二)排他使用许可,是指商标注册人在约定的期间、地域和以约定的方式,将该注册商标仅许可一个被许可人使用,商标注册人依约定可以使用该注册商标但不得另行许可他人使用该注册商标;
  (三)普通使用许可,是指商标注册人在约定的期间、地域和以约定的方式,许可他人使用其注册商标,并可自行使用该注册商标和许可他人使用其注册商标。

第四条 商标法第五十三条规定的利害关系人,包括注册商标使用许可合同的被许可人、注册商标财产权利的合法继承人等。
  在发生注册商标专用权被侵害时,独占使用许可合同的被许可人可以向人民法院提起诉讼;排他使用许可合同的被许可人可以和商标注册人共同起诉,也可以在商标注册人不起诉的情况下,自行提起诉讼;普通使用许可合同的被许可人经商标注册人明确授权,可以提起诉讼。

第五条 商标注册人或者利害关系人在注册商标续展宽展期内提出续展申请,未获核准前,以他人侵犯其注册商标专用权提起诉讼的,人民法院应当受理。

第六条 因侵犯注册商标专用权行为提起的民事诉讼,由商标法第十三条、第五十二条所规定侵权行为的实施地、侵权商品的储藏地或者查封扣押地、被告住所地人民法院管辖。
  前款规定的侵权商品的储藏地,是指大量或者经常性储存、隐匿侵权商品所在地;查封扣押地,是指海关、工商等行政机关依法查封、扣押侵权商品所在地。

第七条 对涉及不同侵权行为实施地的多个被告提起的共同诉讼,原告可以选择其中一个被告的侵权行为实施地人民法院管辖;仅对其中某一被告提起的诉讼,该被告侵权行为实施地的人民法院有管辖权。

第八条 商标法所称相关公众,是指与商标所标识的某类商品或者服务有关的消费者和与前述商品或者服务的营销有密切关系的其他经营者。

第九条 商标法第五十二条第(一)项规定的商标相同,是指被控侵权的商标与原告的注册商标相比较,二者在视觉上基本无差别。
  商标法第五十二条第(一)项规定的商标近似,是指被控侵权的商标与原告的注册商标相比较,其文字的字形、读音、含义或者图形的构图及颜色,或者其各要素组合后的整体结构相似,或者其立体形状、颜色组合近似,易使相关公众对商品的来源产生误认或者认为其来源与原告注册商标的商品有特定的联系。

第十条 人民法院依据商标法第五十二条第(一)项的规定,认定商标相同或者近似按照以下原则进行:
  (一)以相关公众的一般注意力为标准;
  (二)既要进行对商标的整体比对,又要进行对商标主要部分的比对,比对应当在比对对象隔离的状态下分别进行;
  (三)判断商标是否近似,应当考虑请求保护注册商标的显著性和知名度。

第十一条 商标法第五十二条第(一)项规定的类似商品,是指在功能、用途、生产部门、销售渠道、消费对象等方面相同,或者相关公众一般认为其存在特定联系、容易造成混淆的商品。
  类似服务,是指在服务的目的、内容、方式、对象等方面相同,或者相关公众一般认为存在特定联系、容易造成混淆的服务。
  商品与服务类似,是指商品和服务之间存在特定联系,容易使相关公众混淆。

第十二条 人民法院依据商标法第五十二条第(一)项的规定,认定商品或者服务是否类似,应当以相关公众对商品或者服务的一般认识综合判断;《商标注册用商品和服务国际分类表》、《类似商品和服务区分表》可以作为判断类似商品或者服务的参考。

第十三条 人民法院依据商标法第五十六条第一款的规定确定侵权人的赔偿责任时,可以根据权利人选择的计算方法计算赔偿数额。

第十四条 商标法第五十六条第一款规定的侵权所获得的利益,可以根据侵权商品销售量与该商品单位利润乘积计算;该商品单位利润无法查明的,按照注册商标商品的单位利润计算。

第十五条 商标法第五十六条第一款规定的因被侵权所受到的损失,可以根据权利人因侵权所造成商品销售减少量或者侵权商品销售量与该注册商标商品的单位利润乘积计算。

第十六条 侵权人因侵权所获得的利益或者被侵权人因被侵权所受到的损失均难以确定的,人民法院可以根据当事人的请求或者依职权适用商标法第五十六条第二款的规定确定赔偿数额。
  人民法院在确定赔偿数额时,应当考虑侵权行为的性质、期间、后果,商标的声誉,商标使用许可费的数额,商标使用许可的种类、时间、范围及制止侵权行为的合理开支等因素综合确定。
  当事人按照本条第一款的规定就赔偿数额达成协议的,应当准许。

第十七条 商标法第五十六条第一款规定的制止侵权行为所支付的合理开支,包括权利人或者委托代理人对侵权行为进行调查、取证的合理费用。
  人民法院根据当事人的诉讼请求和案件具体情况,可以将符合国家有关部门规定的律师费用计算在赔偿范围内。

第十八条 侵犯注册商标专用权的诉讼时效为二年,自商标注册人或者利害权利人知道或者应当知道侵权行为之日起计算。商标注册人或者利害关系人超过二年起诉的,如果侵权行为在起诉时仍在持续,在该注册商标专用权有效期限内,人民法院应当判决被告停止侵权行为,侵权损害赔偿数额应当自权利人向人民法院起诉之日起向前推算二年计算。

第十九条 商标使用许可合同未经备案的,不影响该许可合同的效力,但当事人另有约定的除外。
  商标使用许可合同未在商标局备案的,不得对抗善意第三人。

第二十条 注册商标的转让不影响转让前已经生效的商标使用许可合同的效力,但商标使用许可合同另有约定的除外。

第二十一条 人民法院在审理侵犯注册商标专用权纠纷案件中,依据民法通则第一百三十四条、商标法第五十三条的规定和案件具体情况,可以判决侵权人承担停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险、赔偿损失、消除影响等民事责任,还可以作出罚款,收缴侵权商品、伪造的商标标识和专门用于生产侵权商品的材料、工具、设备等财物的民事制裁决定。罚款数额可以参照《中华人民共和国商标法实施条例》的有关规定确定。
  工商行政管理部门对同一侵犯注册商标专用权行为已经给予行政处罚的,人民法院不再予以民事制裁。

第二十二条 人民法院在审理商标纠纷案件中,根据当事人的请求和案件的具体情况,可以对涉及的注册商标是否驰名依法作出认定。
  认定驰名商标,应当依照商标法第十四条的规定进行。
  当事人对曾经被行政主管机关或者人民法院认定的驰名商标请求保护的,对方当事人对涉及的商标驰名不持异议,人民法院不再审查。提出异议的,人民法院依照商标法第十四条的规定审查。

第二十三条 本解释有关商品商标的规定,适用于服务商标。

第二十四条 以前的有关规定与本解释不一致的,以本解释为准。

 

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